Fitzgibbon Survey of Scholarly Images

of Democracy in Latin America




2005 Survey

Criteria for Rankings

History of the Survey

Published Analyses

Data Downloads

About the Directors

Survey Participants

Contact Information





Studies based on the Fitzgibbon Survey


Fitzgibbon, Russell H.  1951. “Measurement of Latin-American Political Phenomena: A Statistical Experiment,” American Political Science Review, 45, 2 (June): 517-523.


Fitzgibbon, Russell H.  1956. “A Statistical Evaluation of Latin-American Democracy,” Western Political Science Quarterly, 9, 3 (September): 607-619.


Fitzgibbon, Russell H.  1956. “How Democratic is Latin America?”  Inter-American Economic Affairs, 9, 1 (Spring): 65-77.


Fitzgibbon, Russell H. and Kenneth F. Johnson.  1961. “Measurement of Latin American Political Change,” American Political Science Review, 55, 3 (September): 515-526.


Fitzgibbon, Russell H.  1967. “Measuring Political Change in Latin America,” Journal of Politics, 29, 1 (February): 129-166.


Johnson, Kenneth F.  1976. “Scholarly Images of Latin American Political Democracy in 1975,” Latin American Research Review, 11, 2: 129-140.


Johnson, Kenneth F. and Miles W. Williams. 1978. Democracy, Power, and Intervention in Latin American Political Life: A Study of Scholarly Images. Tempe: Center for Latin American Studies, Arizona State University, Special Studies no. 17.


Johnson, Kenneth F.  1982. “1980 Image-Index Survey of Latin American Political Democracy,” Latin American Research Review 19: 193-201.


Johnson, Kenneth F. and Philip L. Kelly. 1986. “Political Democracy in Latin America 1985: Partial Results of the Image-Index Survey,” LASA Forum, 16, 4 (Spring): 19-22.


Kelly, Philip L.  1998. “Measuring Democracy in Latin America: The Fitzgibbon Index,” in Assessing Democracy in Latin America: A Tribute to Russell H. Fitzgibbon, ed. Philip L. Kelly. Boulder: Westview Press.


Kelly, Philip L.  2002. “Fifty-five Years of Measuring Democracy: Evaluating the Fitzgibbon Democracy Survey,” ReVista: Harvard Review of Latin America (Fall): 13-15.


Kelly, Philip L.  2002. “Democracy in Latin America: Update of the Fitzgibbon Survey,” LASA Forum33, 1 (Spring): 10-13.


Kelly, Phil.  2003.  “Fitzgibbon Survey of Latin American Democracy: An Update of the 2000 Tabulations.”  Available at the Historical Text Archive.