References in Print

Alaska Journal of Commerce. "Fisherman Leaves Boat after 17 Years, Now has Growing Smoked Salmon Firm." Pacific Rim Publishing Co.,1985. Apr 29. vol. 9, no.17, sec. 1, pg. 15.

Albert, Sassoon. Aquaculture: realities, difficulties and outlook. Impact of Science on Society:v3-4, 1983. p. 453-62.

Anchorage Daily News. "Little Fishery: Tender Skippers Like Gene Cicil and a Few Dozen Fishermen Brave Dangerous Waters to Get to Upper Inlet Salmon to Market." We Alaskans Section. July 28,1996. pg.8.

Anderson, L.G. The Economics of Fisheries Management. Johns Hopkins University Press. 1986.

Anderson, L.G. Efficient policies to maintain total allowable catches in ITQ fisheries with at-sea processing. Land Economics 67(2):141-157. 1991.

Annis, Sheldon and contributors, Oscar Arias ... [et al.]. Poverty, natural resources, and public policy in Central America. New Brunswick, N.J., USA: Transaction Publishers,1986. 199 p.

Arnason, R. The Icelandic individual transferable quota system: a descriptive account. Marine Resource Economics 8(3):201-218. 1993.

Bardouil, M.; M. Bohec; M. Comerais; S. Bougrier; P. Lassus. Experimental study of the effects of a tozic microalgal diet on feeding of the oyster Crassostrea gigas Thunberg. J. Shellfish Res. 12(2): 417-422. 1993.

Barsh, Russel Lawrence. The economics of a traditional coastal Indian salmon fishery. Human Organization. 41:170-176. 1982.

Bell, Frederick W. "Techonological Externalities and Common-Property Resources:An Empirical Study of the U.S. Northern Lobster Fishery," Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 80, pp. 148-158, Jan/Feb. 1972.

Bell, Frederick W. Food from the Sea: The Economics and Politics of Ocean Fisheries, Boulder, Westview Press, 1977.

Beveridge, M.C.M.; L.G. Ross; L.A. Kelly. Aquaculture and biodiversity. AMBIO 33(8): 497-502. 1994.

Bosch, D.J. and L.A. Shabman. The decline of private sector oyster culture in Virginia: causes and remedial policies. Marine Resource Economics 6(3):227-243. 1994.

Boyd, J.R. The Narragansett Bay shellfish industry: A historical perspective and an overview of of problems in of the 1990's. Proceedings of the First Rhode Island Shellfisheries conference, 1991. pp. 3-10.

Condensed abstract: The history of the quahog (Mercenaria mercenaria) industry of Narragansett Bay is outlined from its early beginnings in the late 1880's to the present. Details the technological innovations over the years and how these have affects estimated hard-shell clam landings. Also discusses problems of today, namely degradation of water in traditional shellfishing grounds, conflicts with other user groups and effective marketing of the Rhode Island Quahog.

Brandt, S.J. Effects of limited access managment on substitutable resources: A case study of the surf clam and ocean quahog fishery. J. Environ. Syst., 1994. vol. 23, no.1, pp. 21-49.

Condensed abstract: Using the Mid-Atlantic surf clam and ocean quahog fishery as an example, this article models the effects of limited access policies on substitutable natural resources. The history of the surf clam and ocean quahog fishery illustrates the difficulties of managing common property and substitutable resources. I model the profit-maximizing decisions made by individual vessel owners and illustrate how biological and economic parameters affect these closely linked clam populations. Using this model I simulate harvest patterns and populations of the two species under limited access managment.

Brown, Halina Szejnwald ... [et al.]. Corporate environmentalism in a global economy: Societal values in international technology transfer. 1993. 256 p.

Burger, C. V., D. B. Wangaard and R. L. Wilmot. Kenai River Salmon: A Unique Resource in South-central Alaska. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Fish and Wildlife Leaflet 3. 1985. p. 13.

Busch, Lisa. "Hook, line and quotas: A new system rocks an Alaskan village." U.S. News & World Report. Washington D.C.. November 4, 1996. p. 56-58.

Clarke, R.T.J. Shellfish toxins: Research Issue. Marine Toxins and New Zealand Shellfish Jasperse, J.A. ed. 24: 7-10. 1993.

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Copes, P., Resource Management for the Rock Lobster Fisheries of South Australia, Adelaide, Dept. of Agriculture and Fisheries, 1977.

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Couch, J.A. Microbial pest control agents. J.Shellfish Res. 7(3): 553. 1988.

Cronin, L. Eugene. "Chesapeake Fisheries and Resource Stress in the 19th Century." Journal of the Washington Association of Sciences: 1986, Vol. 76, No. 3, pgs. 188-198.

Darmstadter, J. Global development and the environment: perspectives on sustainability. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future. 1992. p 91.

Decker, Daniel J. ... [et al.]. Challenges in the conservation of biological resources: a practitioner's guide. Boulder: Westview Press, 1991. xxix, 402 p.

Dombrowski, Kirk. Totem Poles and Tricycle Races: The certainties and uncertainties of native village life, coastal Alaska 1878-1930. Journal of Historical Sociology. 1995, 8(2): 135-157.

Dominguez, A. Limits on crabbing, oyster scarcity add to tensions in Chesapeake Bay. Los Angeles Times, 1995, Dec. 10, part A, Page 35.

Dysart, B. C., III and Marion Clawson. Public interest in the use of private lands. New York: Praeger, 1989. 187 p.

Fincham, M.W. The battle over blue crabs. Maryland Marine Notes 12(1-2). (Feb./March 1994; found it on the Web.)

Frank, Robert H. Microeconomics and Behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994.

Gatewood, John B. Cooperation, Competition, and Synergy: Information-sharing groups among Southeast Alaskan salmon seiners. American Ethnographer,1984. 11: 350-370

Ghai, Dharam and Jessica M. Vivian. Grassroots environmental action: people's participation in sustainable development. New York: Routledge, 1992. p 351.

Gilbert, A. J. and L.C. Braat. Modelling for population and sustainable development London; New York: Pubished by Routledge and the International Social Science Council with the co-operation of UNESCO and the Institute of Environmental Studies, Free University, Amsterdam, 1991. p 261.

Gillroy, J. M. Environmental risk, environmental values, and political choices: Beyond efficiency trade-offs in public policy analysis. Boulder: Westview Press, 1993. p 189.

Gmelch, George. Two Rivers, Two Cultures: Native Tlingit and non-Indian fishermen compete for Alaska's bountiful salmon. Natural History, 1988. 5/88. 53 p.

Goldsborough, W.J. The bay's blue crabs can be saved. The Virginian-Pilot, 1995 Aug. 23. p A14.

Gordon, H. S. "The Economic Theory of a Common-Property Resource: The Fishery." 1954. 62(No. 2, April): 124-42.

Grafton, R.Q. A note on uncertainty and rent capture in an ITQ fishery. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 1994. 27(3):286-294.

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Hackett, S., E. Schlager, et al. "The Role of Communication in Resolving Common Dilemmas - Experimental Evidence with Heterogeneous Appropriators." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 1994. 27(2): 99-126.

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Hassan, H. M. and Charles Hutchinson. Natural resource and environmental information for decisionmaking. Washington, D.C.: World Bank,1992. p 164.

Holmberg, J. Making development sustainable: redefining institutions, policy, and economics. Washington, D.C.: Island Press,1992. p 362.

Horton, T. Conservationist of the year: Ed Harrison. Orion, 1996. vol 15 (3) pp. 44-50.

Horton, T. Hatred troubles bay waters. The Baltimore Sun, 1995 Dec. 20. p 2b.

Johnson, Donald; "Wind Forced Surface Currents at the Entrance to Chesapeake Bay: Their Effect on Blue Crab Larval Dispersion and Post-Larval Recruitment." Bulletin of Marine Science, 57(3): 726-738, 1995.

Kaliga, Owen J.M. Early attempts at aquaculture in Malawi and implications for future projects. Journal of Asian and African Studies: 1993. v28, p 145(17).

Abstract: This article discusses the evolution of the policy governing the initial introduction of fish farming in Malawi. It evaluates the implementation of the polict, paying particular attention to the response of the rural farmers, their expectations and frustrations. The article, based on interviews of farmers and on archival sources, demonstrates that lack of practical support such as the provision of extension workers contributed to the failure of the project. The study has lessons for planners and implementers of similar projects in Malawi and elsewhere in Africa.

Kazzia, Tom. The Most Dangerous Salmon Fishery: Fishermen Gamble Where the Copper River Crashes in to the Sea. Anchorage Daily News. 1993 July 7, Nation Section, p 1A.

Keen, E. A., 1988. Ownership and Productivity of Marine Fishery Resources; an essay on the resolution of conflict in the use of the ocean pastures. McDonald & Woodward Publishing Co.

Keen, E. A., 1983. Common Property in Fisheries: is Sole Ownership an Option? Marine Policy, July 1983.

Keen, E. A., 1991. Ownership and Productivity of Marine Fishery Resources. Fisheries, July-August, 1991.

Kenney, Nathanial T. "Chesapeake Country." National Geographic: 1964. Vol. 126, No. 3, pgs. 370-411.

Kirkely, James; Regulating the Blue Crab, Callinectes Sapidus, Fishery in Virginia: Biological and Economic Concerns. Virginia Sea Grant's Marine Advisory Program Publications, VA. 1994.

Korten, D. C. and Rudi Klauss. People-centered development: contributions toward theory and planning frameworks. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press, 1984. p 333.

Lacey, Michael James. Government and environmental politics: essays on historical developments since World War Two. Washington, DC: Wilson Center Press; Lanham, MD, 1989. p 325.

Lockwood, A.P.M. Aliens and interlopers at sea. The Lancet, 1993. 342(8877): 942(3)

Lucas, J.S. The biology, exploitation, and mariculture of giant clam (Tridacnidae). Rev. Fish. Sci., 1994. vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 181-224 NOTE: Contains Review Articles. Author's Affiliation: Zool. Dep. James Cook U. Qld. 4811, Australia

Condensed Abstract: Eight giant clam (Tridacnidae) species have been overfished for meat and shells throughout their tropical Indo-Pacific distributions. The life of cycles of most species are well understood and a variety of mariculture methods have been developed (Tridacna and Hippopus for the 2 genera). Whereas the economics of giant clam farming have been demonstrated, commercial farming is still in its infancy. Conservation measures, such as development of marine reserves and establishing breeding aggregations, and restocking wild populations with cultured clams, have only been attempted to a limited extent.

Macinko, S. Public or private?- United States commercial fisheries management and the public trust doctrine, reciprocal challenges. 1993. Natural Resources Journal 33(4):919-955.

Majumdar, ed.; Containment Problems and Management of Living Chesapeake Bay Resources. Pennsylvania Academy of Science Publications, PA; 1987.

McKee, David L. Energy, the environment, and public policy: issues for the 1990s. 1991. New York: Praeger viii, pgs. 1-220

Malinowski, S. The Clam Farm. 1987. New York State Urban Development Corporation.

McCay, B. J. Co-Management of a Clam Revitalization Project: The New Jersey "Spawner Sanctuary" Program. IN Pinkerton, E. (Ed). Co-Operative Management of Local Fisheries. 1989. Univ. of British Columbia Press.

Miller, Marc L. and Jeffery C. Johnson. Hard Work and Competition in the Bristol Bay Salmon Fishery. 1981. Human Organization. 14(2): 131-139.

Nickerson, Colin. "Troubled Waters/Fishing in Crisis", The Boston Globe. April 18, 1994. Metro/Region section. P. 1.

Niiler, Eric. "Fishermen learn to reel in cash through research", The Patriot Ledger. June, 29, 1996, Saturday South Edition. News section, p. 9.

Olson, Richard K., Integrating sustainable agriculture, ecology, and environmental policy Integrating sustainable agriculture, ecology, and ... 1992. New York: Food Products Press xvi, p. 161

Pascoe, S. ITQ's in the Australian south east fishery. 1993. Marine Resource Economics 8(4):395-401.

Pethig, Rudiger 1992. Conflicts and cooperation in managing environmental resources. Berlin; New York: Springer-Verlag 338 p.

Pillay, T.V.R. Aquaculture and the Environment. 1992. John Wiley and Sons, NY. x+189pp.

Pollnac, R.B. "The role of sociocultual factors in aquaculture development projects," Advances in World Aquaculture. 1991. Volume 5, Chapter 6. World Aquaculture Society.

Prager, Michael; "A Simple Model of the Blue Crab, Callinectes Sapidus, Spawning Migration in Chesapeake Bay." Bulletin of Marine Science. 1992. 58(2): 421-428.

Price, Kent A. Regional conflict and national policy. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future. 1991. Baltimore: Distributed by the Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 142

Rimer, Sarah. "In New England, fish country, the end of fishing", The New York Times. Monday, October 31, 1994. p. A12.

Robinson, S.M.C., 1993. The soft-shell clam fishery in the Canadian maritimes: An industry in change. 1993. J. Shelfish. Res.., vol. 12, no. 1, p. 145

Condensed abstract: The fishery for the soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria) on the east coast of Canada is currently in a state of change. This fishery has a long history of exploitation (several thousand years) and landing records date back to the late 1800's. Harvesting methods have not changed appreciably for decades as individual fishermen still harvest the clam at low tide using clam forks. Landings in the clam industry have decreased over the last decade. Although cycles in landings have been noted in the past, the recent decline in landings are due more to the closing of the clam flats due to contamination by coliform bacteria than by over-harvesting. The possible directions of the industry in the future will be discussed.

Ruddle, Kenneth. "Local Knowledge in the Folk Management of Fisheries and Coastal Marine Environments" in: Folk Management in the World's Fisheries: Lessons for Modern Fisheries Management; eds. C.L. Dyer and J.R. McGoodwin. 1995. Denver: University of Colorado Press.

Russell, Dick. "The crisis comes home", E Magazine. September/October, 1996. pp. 38-41.

Safina, Carl. "The World's Imperiled Fish." Scientific American. Nov. 1995. pp. 46-53.

Sax, Joseph L., Robert H. Abrams, Barton H. Thompson, Jr. Legal control of water resources: cases and materials. 1991. St. Paul, Minn.: West Pub. Co. lxxxiii,p. 987

Schlager, E., W. Blomquist, et al. "Mobile Flows, Storage, and Self-Organized Institutions for Governing Common-Pool Resources." Land Economics 1994. 70(3): 294-317.

Schwartz, N.B. et al. Cooperatively managed projects and rapid assessment:suggestions from a Panamanian case. Human Organization: v47, p1-14.

Shields, T.. Crabbers may feel a pinch; limits, licenses proposed as population falls. The Washington Post. Aug 27, 1995. Pg B1.

Shields, T. March 7, 1996. MD proposes new rules for harvesting of crabs. The Washington Post, Pg B5.

Siddall. Shellfish aquaculture as a cottage industry: a model for development in New York. Journal of Shellfish Res. 1988. 7(2):295-301.

Sindermann, C.J. Role of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) in matters concerned with transfers and introductions of marine organisms. 1988. J. Shellfish Res. 7(3): 573-574.

Stead, W. E. and Jean Garner Stead. Management for a small planet: strategic decision making and the environment. 1992. Newberry Park, Calif.: Sage Publications. p. 212

Swanson, T. M. and Edward B. Barbier. Economics for the wilds: Wildlife, diversity, and development. 1992. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 226 p.

Terrebonne, R.P. Property rights and entrepreneurial income in commercial fisheries. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management.1995. 28(1):68-82.

Tettelbach, S. And P. Wenczel, 1993. Reseeding efforts and the status of bay scallop populations in New York following the occurrence of "brown tide" algal blooms. J. Shellfish Res. 12(2):423.

Tooker, William Wallace. Some Indian Fishing Stations upon Long Island, with Historical and Ethnological Notes. 1901. F. P Harper,

Tribe,L. H., Corinne S. Schelling, John Voss. When values conflict: essays on environmental analysis, discourse, and decision. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Pub. Co.1976.xv, 178 p.

Turner, R. K. Sustainable environmental management: Principles and practice . London: Belhaven Press; Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.1988. p.292

Warner, William W. Beautiful Swimmers: Watermen, Crabs, and the Chesapeake Bay. Published by Little, Brown & Company.1984.

Washington Times. Jun 25, 1993. McDonald's looks beyond the bay. Sec B, Pg 3, Col 2.

Waterman's Gazette. Maryland Waterman's Association, inc; vol. 23 #6,7,9. A fruitful resource concerning current issues in the Chesapeake Bay. The paper is put out monthly by people relating hands on experiences and concerns for the Chesapeake Bay.

Wheatley, Harold G."This Is My Island, Tangier." National Geographic: Vol. 144, No. 5,1973. pgs. 700-725.

Welch, W. The political feasibility of full ownership property rights: the cases of pollution and fisheries. Policy Sciences,1983. 16:165-180.

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