The Papers of Philander Chase
About the Project
Who was Philander Chase?
The Documents
Exhibit Hall
The Papers of Philander Chase

Editorial Policies


Most of the digitization was done manually during the transcription of the documents into a word processor, and then to plain text.  Some of the printed materials were scanned (at 600 dpi) using OCR (optical character recognition) software ( ScanSoft  TextBridge), and then converted to word processor documents, and then to plain text.


The documents are presented in plain (ASCII) text (.txt) to ensure portability and longevity.  To aid in reading and printing, each line is limited to seventy characters.  

This edition is presented without any kind of markup (SGML, XML, etc.).  While we agree that such markup schemes greatly aid in accurately describing a document, it also greatly adds to the workload, and thus would severely reduce the already slow pace at which we are progressing.  Thus, we present the documents in clean, plain text.  We hope that emerging technologies will, at some later date, allow us to more efficiently markup these documents in accordance to the guidelines set forth by the Model Editions Partnership.


As accuracy of the texts is paramount, transcription of the documents is as literal as possible within the constraints of plain text.  

General Rules
All antiquated or incorrect spellings are retained with two exceptions: the elongated "s" is modernized; and the thorn ("y" for "th") is expanded.  The umlaut is eliminated and the conjoined "a" and "e" is printed as "ae", and both are footnoted.  Centering and right justification are eliminated and the text brought to the left margin (if the justification is crucial to the text, it is footnoted).  Punctuation, capitalization are left as written (this also applies to sentences ending with a long space, or a dash, which is rendered as two hyphens).   When names are omitted in the text (i.e., Mr. T____ or Mr. T------), the missing portion is rendered as three hyphens.  Contractions and abbreviations are left as written ("Yr Most Obt & Humble Servt").  If expansion is needed for clear understanding, it appears in square brackets.  Superscript letters are lowered (Philr to Philr).  Brackets used by the author are rendered as parentheses.  The presentation of charts and similar objects is standardized to meet the requirements of plain text, while still maintaining some degree of formatting.  Any other needed changes to the texts not list here are explained in footnotes.

Rules Regarding Manuscripts
Emphasis placed on text by the author (underlining, italics, etc.) is described in a footnote.  Crossed-out text is noted and, if legible, reproduced in a footnote.  Illegible, incomplete, or mutilated words or dates are indicated by angle brackets <gap>.  If the missing text, or portions of it, have been determined, it appears in square brackets.  Super- and sub-script texts, and marginal texts are printed in-line where appropriate.  If the intended location cannot be determined, the text appears in a footnote.  Sketches or drawings are described in a footnote.  In cases where multiple copies of a document exist, the editors have printed what is deemed the most authentic text, and discrepancies are annotated.  

Rules Regarding Printed Matter
Obvious printerís errors are silently emended.  Page numbers are retained and printed on the left margin, at the beginning of the page.  As each chapter is presented as a separate document, the same page number is repeated if a new chapter begins on the same page the previous one ends.  Small capitals used for emphasis are rendered as regular capitals.  When letters are reproduced, the datelines, salutations, signatures, etc. are brought to the left margin.  Italics used in datelines or in other parts of a reproduced letter that are clearly not being used for emphasis are eliminated and not footnoted.  The various devices used to separate sections of text are rendered as five hyphens.  


As our goal is primarily to get these documents online and accessible, annotation only appears to alert the reader of some textual matter, such as to indicate marginal or deleted text.  Footnotes are referred to by a number in square brackets (ex. [1]) and the notes appear at the end of the document.

The document type is noted at the end of the document.  Information regarding the transcription, digitization, etc. of the document is also be noted at the end of each document.

Once all of the documents are online, more contextual information may be added in the form of concise annotation.


The views and opinions expressed in this page are strictly those of the information provider. The provider assumes full  responsibility and liability for the contents of this document. The contents of this page have neither been reviewed nor approved by Kenyon College. All comments and feedback should be sent to This page and its entire contents ©2001 Papers of Philander Chase, Andrew S. Richmond, Editor. All rights reserved.
Last updated 15 January 2001