1. Faye Mitchell, interview by author, tape
recording, Chicago, IL., 12 October 1999.
5. Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton, American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993) 10
6. Originally, Bronzeville consisted of two neighborhoods; Douglas and Grand Boulevard. Douglas is bounded by twenty-sixth street on the north, Lake Michigan on the east, thirty-ninth street on the south and the Chicago Rock Island, and Pacific Railroad tracks on the west. Grand Boulevard is bounded by Thirty-ninth Street on the north, Cottage Grove Street on the east, fifty-first street on the south and Chicago Rock Island, and Pacific Railroad tracks on the west. With the influx of African-Americans to the North, these adjacent neighborhoods became the home of the migrants. These neighborhoods became what are known now as Bronzeville. In this essay, the focus area is the southern neighborhood of Bronzeville; Grand Boulevard.
7. Chicago Fact Book Consortium, Local Community Fact Book 1980 (Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 1984) 103
8. When referring to the neighborhood, I am speaking of the physical features such as houses, streets, churches, etc. When referring to the community, I am speaking of the people. When African-Americans came to Chicago, neighborhood and community were used interchangeably because their neighborhood and their community became one. By observing the high rise public housing facilities on South Side Chicago, the neighborhood became the community because of the physical set up of the buildings.
9. Phillip M. Hauser and Evelyn M. Kitagawa, ed.. Local Community Fact Book, 1950 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953) 158
10. In this essay, the term African-Americans will be used instead of the general term Black. Ethnicity of African-Americans specifically deals with the Africans that were brought to America and earned citizenship in the United States becoming African-Americans. When using the term Black, a generality is implied. This term can include any person of African descent (i.e. Brazilian, Jamaican, Haitian, Egyptians etc). Usually, when other ethnic minorities, such as the aforementioned, migrated to Chicago, they moved to the northern part of Chicago: not to the South Side of Chicago like African-Americans. However, there were exceptions.
11. Chicago Urban League, "Urban Renewal and the Negro in Chicago." (Chicago: privately printed, 1958) 13
12. Ray Suarez, The Old Neighborhood: What we lost in the Great Suburban migration, 1966-1999 (New York: The Free Press, 1999) 78. This term was used by Dempsey Travis, ex-NAACP president, when talking to Ray Suarez. He is referring to African-American majority of schools.
13. Arnold Hirsh, Making the Second Ghetto: Race and housing in Chicago, 1940-1960. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983) 2
14. James R. Grossman, Land of Hope Chicago, Black Southerners and the Great Migration. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1989) 4
15. Local Community Factbook, 103.
16. Hope, 4.
18. Fact Book 1950, 12.
19. Fact Book 1980, 103-106.
20. Apartheid, 43.
21. Hope, 138.
22. Ibid, 134.
26. Apartheid, 50.
27. Ibid, 51.
28. Negro in Chicago, 20.
29. Factbook 1980, 104.
31. Politics of Urban renewal, 20.
32. Author Unknown, "Negores in Chicago", Cleveland Advocate, 15 November 1919.
33. Muriel Beadle, The Hyde Pak-Kenwood Urban Renewal Years (Chicago: privately printed, 1961), 11.
34. Cleveland Advocate, 15 November 1919.
35. Home Owners Loan Association (HOLC) and Federal Housing Administration (FHA) indirectly supported the flight of white, middle-class population to the suburbs (which despite government support, remained closed to blacks.) Refer to American Apartheid by Massey and Denton for more information on this subject.
36. Apartheid, 45.
37. Fact Book 1950. The location of Kenwood, in comparison to Hyde Park, is further north and more prone to be exposed to African-Americans getting off the Illinois Central Railroad going west to Bronzeville.
38. Brown v. Board of Education was a Supreme Court case decided in 1954 that overturned the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson. The 9-0 decision over-ruled desegregation in public education, stating that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." www.coloredreflections.com/50/Bboard.htm
39. Kenneth Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 289.
40. Apartheid ,55.
41. Fact Book 1950. The location of Kenwood, in comparison to Hyde-Park, is further north and more prone to be exposed to African-Americans getting off the Illinois Central Railroad going west to Bronzeville.
42. Apartheid, 56.
43. Ibid, 55.
44. Apartheid, 55.
45. Crabgrass Frontier, 137-154.
46. Housing Act of 1949, Hearings Before the Committee on Banking and Currency House of Representatives, 81st Cong., 1st sess., 1949, 1-2.
47. Apartheid, 55.
48. "Negro in Chicago", 15.
49. Politics of Urban Renewal, 3.
50. Devereux Bowly, Jr. The Poorhouse: Subsidized
Housing in Chicago, 1895-1976. (Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1978) 27.
51. Politics of Urban Renewal, 3. The Housing and Home Finance Agency of the federal government reserved $28,312,062 for investment in this operation.
53. Politics of Urban Renewal, 3.
54. Northern Illinois Planning Commission 1980 A Brief History of the Chicago Housing Authority May 1956
55. Politics of Urban Renewal, 5.
56. Muriel Beadle, The Hyde Park-Kenwood Urban renewal Years (Chicago: privately printed, 1961) 4-5. Once the housing shortage would let up, the kind of people that would stay in these apartments would change. The older residents in the neighborhood would move away and then one by one the entire block would become cleared. This kind of environment would be an invitation to bums. Building inspectors called this process loss of amenity, which is fifteen percent of property evaluation. The property value of an entire neighborhood could decrease with the help of a slumlord.
57. Politics of Urban Renewal, 151.
59. Thomas Buck, "CHA Reports Reasons Whites Oppose Public Housing Sites", Chicago Tribune, date unknown.
60. Politics of Urban Renewal, 64-65.
61. Author Unknown, "Chicago Acts To Halt Spread of Slums", Chicago Sun-Times, 23 August 1953.
62. Chicago Transit Authority Aerial Map 1949.
63. Thomas Buck, "Super-Highway Will Wipe Out City Eyesore", Chicago Tribune, 26 October 1957.
65. Chicago Tribune, 1957.
66. Poorhouse, 115.
67. Ibid, 27.
68. There were many other public housing facilities that were constructed in the Bronzeville area. Ida B. Wells homes, built in 1937, were the first public housing facility constructed for African-Americans. There were other housing projects built on the Black Belt-Harold Ickes, Dearborn Homes, Henry Horner Homes-however, they were harder for African-Americans to receive housing in these complexes because they were intergrated. Poorhouse, 27.
69. Poorhouse, 125.
70. Second Ghetto, 13.
72. Poorhouse, 35.
73. Ibid, 27.
74. Second Ghetto, 86-94.
75. Sub-culture is refetterin to the creation of a culture that is unique to those residents that lived in these apartment tenements.
76. Author unknown, "The Negro in Chicago:
Find Public Housing Key to Escape From Slum Life", Chicago Sun-Times, 5 October 1953.
79. Poorhouse, 124. A tenant commenting
his life as a resident of Robert Taylor Homes.
80. W. Dennis Keating and Janet Smith, "Past Federal Policy for Urban Neighborhoods", in Revitalizing Urban Neighborhoods, W. Dennis Keating, Norman Krumholz, and Phillip Star, ed. (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1996) 51.
81. Poorhouse, 124-128.
83. Author Unknown, "City Renewal Concentrated in Negro Areas: Urban League Tells Survey Results", Chicago Tribune, 21 November 1957.
84. Negro in Chicago, 4.
85. Frank Ottman, "CHA Residents Face With Uncertain in Housing Protest to Stay", South Street Journal [Chicago], 9 November 1999. As stated by James C. Downs, Jr. Mayor Kennelly's housing coordinator.
86. Negro in Chicago, 12.
87. Ibid, 4.
88. Ibid, 20.
89. American Apartheid, 53.
90. Curtis Lawrence, "Residents protest plans to close 11 CHA buildings", Chicago Sun-Times, 22 September 1999.
91. Chicago, 163-168.
92. www.ci.chi.il.us/Planand Develop/...ms/EmpowermentZone/EmpZoneOverview.html
93. Fact Book 1980, 158-173.
96. As said by Jim Edstrom, Coordinator Planner for the Chicago Housing Commissioner. Phone Interview, 19 October 1999.
97. South Street Journal.