Hallmarks of the Proto-Orthodox Churches

1. Martyrdom and exhortations to martyrdom

2. Hierarchical church organization with a single person at the top (the bishop)

--doctrine of apostolic succession

3. Relationship of Christianity to Judaism

--Old Testament looks forward to the New

--Old Testament provides claim to antiquity

--Jews misunderstand their own religion

--Jewish scriptures in fact reject Judaism

--Jesus's death condemns all Jews

4. the Role of Revelation: replaced by reliance upon the written word

--charismatic "gifts of the spirit"?

--angelic revelation and prophecy

5. The nature of Jesus: fully God and fully human

--If Christ did not really suffer and die, why should we? (oppostion: docetists)

--Christ was also fully divine (opposition: adoptionists)

--how then, can there be only one God?

--Early solution (Origen): God created Christ, who was related but subordinate to God (emanationist view)