New religious ideas in the Persian Period

I. Dualism: forces of light/darkness; good/evil

A. Feature of Zoroastrianism

B. Heavenly beings divided into two classes: angelic and demonic

C. Eternal opposition of good and evil

D. Unlike later gnostic dualism, world is not the domain of evil

II. The concept of the end-time: that history will at some point end

A. Cosmic battle at the end in which goodness will finally prevail

B. After-life: bodily resurrection of the dead at the end of time

C. Judgement day: return to paradise (hell concept not as emphasized)

III. Return of Davidic king

A. Political restoration of ancient Israel

B. Savior figure who will lead the final battle

IV. The end of prophecy

A. Instead, compilation and preservation of classical prophetic literature