Fall of the Northern Kingdom (722)

I. Chronology

A. Tilglath-Pileser's western campaign, 734-732

1. The Syro-Ephraimite War (alliance of Syria and Israel against Judah)

2. In response, Judah becomes a vassal of Assyria

3. Defeat of Syria at request of Judah

4. Tyre, Edom, Moab also forced to become Assyrian vassal

5. Large sections of Israel seized; Israel concludes vassal treaty with Assyria

B. Shalmaneser V (727-722) and Sargon (722-705)

1. Israel's king involved in western revolt against Assyria and withholds annual tribute

2. Assyrian capture of Israelite king and seige of Samaria, 725-722

3. Fall of Samaria 722

4. Deportation of citizens, resettlement with others 720

C. Judah: Hezekiah (727-697) and Sennacherib (705-681)

1. Vassal of Assyria for 20 years until Sargon died

2. Initiation of cult reforms

3. Initial revolt against Sennacherib (along with others)

4. Sennacherib captures Judean cities and besieges Jerusalem 701

5. Hezekiah submits to Assyria; siege lifted

II. Legacy of the Northern Kingdom (Israel)

A. Emphasis on Jacob and Joseph tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh

B. Emphasis on Exodus and wilderness traditions

C. Elohist epic tradition (E)

1. YHVH not known before Moses

2. Conditional nature of covenant

D. Seat of original Tribal Confederacy at Shechem

1. anti-monarchical

2. glorification of small independent farmer

3. focus on charismatic rather than hereditary leadership

4. toleration of severe critics of society

E. Prophetic tradition

1. Samuel, Elijah, Elisha, Amos and Hosea

F. Seat of original cult shrines: Bethel, Shiloh, Shechem and Dan