Radical And Political Reformations: Zwingli, Anabaptists, and the Anglican Reformation

I. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)

A. Focuses on one aspect of Luther's Reform theology: Sola Scriptura

1. Scriptures are literally true, open and transparent

2. If it isn't in Scripture you can't do it

a. Rejects: sacramentalism, vestments, music, most of the liturgy

b. Transubstantiation (favors commemorative meal)

c. Sacraments have no salvific power

3. If it is in Scripture you must do it

a. Primacy of the Word

b. Advocates study of Greek and Hebrew

B. Establishment of state church in Swiss counties

1. Attempt to ally with German Lutheran princes

2. Strategic meeting at Marburg Castle 1529

3. Persecution of more radical Anabaptist groups

4. Killed in battle 1531

II. The Radical Reformers: the Anabaptists

A. Denial of any state involvement with the church

1. Church is composed of voluntary members

2. A separatist community

B. Denial of infant baptism

1. Rejection of church model of membership

2. Wanted life in the church

C. Denial of Mass as a sacrifice

1. Anti-Catholic and anti-sacramental

D. Favor individual religious liberty and separation from larger society

1. Threat to civil order

2. Pacifism

3. Refusal to pay taxes or take oaths (Mennonites)

4. Communalism and sharing of goods (Hutterites)

III. The English Reformation: Political Severance

A. Henry VIII (1491-1547): defender of the faith

1. Papacy's weakness had worked in favor of English monarchs

2. A great deal of casual anti-clericalism

3. The papal legate: Cardinal Wolsey with unprecedented powers

"It was never merry in England when we had cardinals among us."

4. He could do almost anything, except

B. Grant Henry VIII a divorce

1. Henry had married Catherine of Aragon after his brother died with a special papal dispensation

2. Long series of stillbirths and miscarriages failed to result in an heir to the throne

3. Over time, Spain had ceased to be an ally of England

4. And other royal families had obtained divorces, so why not him?

C. Problem: Catherine was the aunt of Charles V, the Hapsburg Emperor

1. Charles V controlled the pope

2. Sack of Rome 1527

3. Charles didn't want his aunt to be humiliated

D. Solution: Why should England be subject to Spanish whim?

1. Belief that the papacy was no longer international

2. Henry VIII severs ties with papacy, declares himself the head of the church

3. Act of Supremacy

4. All clergy required to swear to this act and to agree to his divorce from Catherine

E. The financial windfall: Henry stops monetary payments to Rome and takes them over himself

1. Dissolution of the monasteries puts huge swaths of land and rental income into the royal coffers