Sample Bibliography Format


How do Islamic beliefs about time differ from the period that preceded Islam?

Are the Islamic beliefs about time a reflection of Islamic beliefs about God?

How is the Islamic calendar calculated, and why don't religious holidays fall on the same date every year?


Time was viewed as an enemy in the pre-Islamic age. Due to the emergence of the Islamic calendar, this image was supplanted by the idea of time as a narrow place between creation and eternity. First used in the seventh century, the Islamic calendar reflects the belief that God transcends time. Therefore it is a lunar calendar, whose religious festivals shift because they are based on the position of the moon. It is also designed so that festivals are not always in the same month or even the same season.

Annotated Bibliography


Knirk, F.G. (1987), Instructional Facilities for the Information Age, 1987, Retrieved 16 October 2002 from ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Resources, Syracuse, NY, ERIC Reproduction Service No. ED 296 734

Knirk is a professor in the Department of Educational Psychology and Technology at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, and a well-published author in the field of educational facilities design. In order to inform educators so that they in turn can communicate effectively with architects and school administrators about necessary educational facilities design requirements, Knirk summarizes the research on six design issues relating to the optimization of a technology-rich teaching/learning environment: (1) light and color, (2) heating, ventilation and air conditioning, (3) acoustical and background noise, (4) furniture and ergonomics, (5) electrical wiring and conduit requirements, and (6) computer requirements. Additional sections discuss grouped and individualized learning environments and audiovisual media. Many specific measurements and recommendations are given, including viewing angles, light levels, workstation requirements and classroom space configurations. Although the focus is on elementary and secondary educational buildings, the majority of the content is applicable to higher education settings as well and, given its easily accessible nature as an ERIC Information Analysis Product, this text should be read by any librarian planning an electronic classroom.


Waite, Linda J., Frances Kobrin Goldscheider, and Christina Witsberger. "Nonfamily Living and the
Erosion of Traditional Family Orientations Among Young Adults." American Sociological Review 51.4 (1986): 541-554. Print.

The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.

--Note: This example uses the MLA format for the journal citation.


United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (