Bystanders, Collaborators, Resisters

Isolation (1933-1939)
--Boycott of Jewish stores (1933)
--Nuremburg Laws (1935-1938)
--Kristallnacht (1938)

Terror and removal of leadership

  Terror and concentration camps (1933)
  Outlawing other political parties (1933)
  Protestant (54%)
  Reichskirche (State Church)
--Sports Palace Declaration, 1933
--De-Judaizing Christianity project
Bekennende kirche (Confessing Church)
–Arrest of nearly 2000 pastors, 1935-37
–Demand of loyalty oaths to Hitler
--Karl Barth, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Martin Niemoller
–Barmen Declaration, 1934
Catholic (46%)
–Papal concordat with Hitler
"Mit Brennende Sorge", 1937
Hochmuth, The Deputy, about Pius XII

Knowledge vs. secrecy
Eastern atrocities
Bueaucracy assumes large numbers of people (handout)
"The Blood Kit"

Possible avenues of action
1) Passive non-compliance (low personal risk)
2) Active resistance against Nazi regime (high personal risk)
–Red Union Opposition (RUO) based in Hamburg
–Red Orchestra (Die Rote Kapelle) – 1942
–The White Rose
–Attempted assassination of Hitler – July 20, 1944
3) Rescue