The Modification of the Confucian “Five Relations”
 See D. C. Lau, trans., Mencius (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970), p. 102.
 See Mark R. Mullins, Shimazono Susumu, and Paul L. Swanson,
eds., Religion and Society in Modern
 The Rescript does not include the ruler-minister (or ruler-subject) in its discussion of the human relationships, but it does mention “Our subjects ever united in loyalty and filial piety” in its first sentence, and the clear implication is that these are the virtues defining that relationship.