Ancient Mesopotamian Civilizations

3000 - 2000 BCE: Dominance of Sumer (2850-2360)

Loosely organized system of city-states

2360 - 2180: Akkadians (Empire of Sargon the Great)

2060 - 1950: Dynasty of Ur (Sumerian return to Power)

1950 - 1750: End of Sumerian dynasty: period of confusion

Invasions of different Semitic peoples including Akkadians

Eventual establishment of Amorite city-state dynasties (Amurru in Akkadian means "westerners")

Excavation of Mari, an Amorite city from this period

Infiltration of peoples called Hurrians especially near Mari and Haran, and eventually, Canaan

1728 - 1686: Hammurabi and the First Babylonian dynasty (also Amorite)

Enuma Elish creation story

Epic of Gilgamesh

Hurrian city of Nuzi

Hittites (near modern Turkey)

Hyksos Invasion of Egypt

East Semites: Akkadians / Assyrians / Babylonians

West Semites: Amorites / Canaanites / Hebrews / Aramaeans / Phoenicians

South Semites: North Arabs / South Arabs / Ethiopians