Nazi Rise to Power: Chronological Framework
1871 German Unification
1914 - 1918 World War I
- Germany allied with Austria-Hungary
- 1917 – Russian Revolution
- American enters the war
1919 Treaty of Versailles
- Reorganization of Austria-Hungarian empire (Eastern Europe) into independent states
- Germany forced to accept responsibility for the war
- War reparations set up
- New German government – the Weimar Republic – set up after Germany's loss and the abdication of the Kaiser
- All German colonial territories lost to French and British
- First act of Weimar Republic is to sign the treaty of Versailles
1919 - 1933 Weimar Republic
- To pay war reparations, Republic begins printing excess money.
- Formation of Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers' Party)
1919 Spartacus coup – attempt to establish Soviet-style revolution.
1920 Kapp putsch: right wing coup attempts to overthrow Weimar; fear
1923 French occupation of the Ruhr, for failure to pay war reparations
- Hyperinflation: 4 trillion marks = 1 dollar.
- Many political parties, social unrest, street gangs.
- Nazi Beer Hall Putsch; Hitler imprisoned; writes Mein Kampf
- Currency reform.
- Dawes Plan of economic recovery; gradual decline of Nazi Party.
- Unemployment brought down to 10%.
- Participation in government by formerly marginalized groups: women, Jews.
- American stock market crash;
- Dawes plan tied Germany to American economic woes. Middle class wiped out.
- By 1932, 33% unemployment.
- Communist and Fascist parties offer more extreme solutions.
- Fascists appeal to anti-communist fears.
- Violent street fights and demonstrations.
- Right-wing breakup of communist political meetings.
- Re-emergence of Nazi party to prominence under Hitler's plan for "Work, Freedom and Bread".
1932 Nazis make huge gains in Reichstag (parliament);
1933 Hitler becomes chancellor. Burning of Reichstag blamed on communists.
Hitler suspends civil rights and seizes power – end of Weimar Republic