by Zhang Boxing 張伯行
From Zhang Boxing, comp., Zhou Lianxi xiansheng quanji 周濂溪先生全集
Translated by Joseph A. Adler
Revised and enlarged, January 14, 2009
Copyright © 2009 by Joseph A. Adler
[Preface by Zhu Xi]
The Tongshu is a book written by Master Lianxi. The Master's family name was Zhou, his personal name was Dunyi, and his style name was Maoshu. From his youth he was well-known to the generation for his learning and conduct. Yet, no one knows where his teaching tradition came from. It is only because the two Masters Cheng from Henan [Cheng Hao (1032-1085) and Cheng Yi (1033-1107)] got their learning from him and received the orthodox succession that had not been handed down since Confucius and Mencius that its origins can be inferred. But how he managed what Confucius and [his favorite disciple] Yanzi enjoyed [i.e. self-cultivation](2) and expressed his interest in "composing poetry under the moon"(3) [a possible allusion to the poet Li Bo] we also cannot entirely determine.
Most of the books he wrote have been scattered and lost, except for this one, originally called Yitong (Penetrating the Yi). Together with the "Discussion of the Supreme Polarity Diagram" it was given out to the Cheng brothers and then handed down to posterity. In regard to his theory, [these texts] really complement each other. Generally speaking, they extend from the differentiation and integration of the one principle (li), the two modes of psycho-physical substance (qi), and the Five Phases (wuxing), thereby determining the subtle and manifest [aspects] of the substance of the Way. They pronounce upon the choices involved in ethical behavior, literary expression, and material profit in order to reinvigorate the low level of common scholarship. His discussions of the methods by which to enter into virtue and the tools by which to manage the world are both cogent and terse; they are not empty words. His broad principles and general applications are unmatched by any scholars since the Qin and Han [dynasties, 221 B.C.E. - 220 C.E.]; likewise the thoroughness of his reasoning and the profundity of his ideas are beyond what recent scholars have been able to glimpse.
Therefore, when the Cheng brothers died, his successors were few. Those who knew him considered his ideas lofty and distant. In my early years, I was fortunate to receive his bequeathed writings. Yet when I submitted to reading them, at first I did not understand at all what he was saying. Worse yet, I could not even punctuate them. In my thirties I had the opportunity to go study with Master Yanping [Li Tong, 1093-1163], and then I began to learn about ten to twenty percent of [Zhou's] theory. In recent years, after delving into it for a long time, I have gotten it, if only roughly. Although I do not presume to understand the broad principles and general applications, still within the text there are actual means by which to see the surpassing thoroughness of his reasoning and the surpassing profundity of his ideas, which will not delude us.
Since I first read this until the present, how many years and months has it been? Suddenly it is more than three decades later. I regret the increasing distance from the former philosopher, and I fear that his marvelous ideas will not be transmitted. Without regard for my limitations, I have quickly done a commentary. Although my knowlege is common and shallow and inadequate to bring out the Master's intricacies, nevertheless I have begun to penetrate the general meaning, in order to wait for later gentlemen who may then chance to come close to it.
Respectfully recorded by the later scholar Zhu Xi, on the jia-chen day of the ninth month of the ding-wei year of the Chunxi reign .
[Zhang's note:] This preface was the last thing written by Master Hui'an
[Zhu Xi] in his collected commentary on the Tongshu. No one has
determined in what year the Teacher first collected the Tongshu. In his
postface the Teacher says: "The Changsha edition was the last to appear,
and so that is the one I have compiled. I have examined the other editions
in the most careful detail, but they seem to be incomplete...."(4) In the ji-chou year of the Qiandao period  he revised the old text; this is the
Jian'an edition. Up to the ji-hai year of the Chunxi period , for a
total of eleven years, he went back and added still more corrections; this is
the Nankang edition. In another eight years, in the ding-wei year ,
he redid the commentary, and this compilation was first arranged. The
present edition takes only that one as correct, and this preface was placed
specially at its head. Several postfaces are placed at the end.
[Text and commentary:]
[Zhang's note:] This section discusses the Supreme Polarity (taiji) as actualized Order (shili), originating in Heaven and bestowed upon human beings; the great source of human nature and endowment (xingming).
[a] Being authentic is the foundation of the sage.
'Being authentic' (cheng) means being perfectly actualized (shi) and true; it is the correct Order (li) that Heaven bestows and things receive. All people have it, and what makes the sage a sage is nothing other than this; it is just that he alone is able to complete it. This book and the Supreme Polarity Diagram complement each other. Authenticity is the same as what is called [in the Diagram] the Supreme Polarity.
[b] "Great indeed is the originating [power] of Qian! The myriad things rely on it for their beginnings."(5) It is the source of being authentic.
The two sentences above explain it [viz. being authentic] in reference to the Yi. "Qian" is the pure yang hexagram. Its meaning is vigor. It is another name for the virtue[/power](6) of Heaven. "The originating" means the beginning. To "rely on" means to take. This refers to the originating [power] of the way of Qian. It is what the myriad things take as their beginning. The actualized Order extends to be bestowed as the foundation of the human being, like water's having a source. It is the same as the Diagram's [term] "dynamism of yang."
[c] "The way of Qian transforms and each receives its correct nature and endowment."(7) In this way authenticity is established.
The above sentence is also from the text of the Yi. What Heaven bestows is "endowment;" what things receive is their "nature." This says that if the myriad things each receive their endowment correctly through the transformation of the way of Qian, then the actualized Order is there as the ruler of each individual thing. This is the same as the Diagram's [term] "stillness of yin."
[d] Being pure and flawless,(8) it is perfectly good.
'Pure' means unadulterated. "Flawless" means without fault. This says that what Heaven bestows and things receive are in all cases the fundamental nature of the actualized Order, containing no adulterations of evil.
[e] Thus: "The alternation of yin and yang is called the Way. That which issues from it is good. That which fulfills [/constitutes] it is human nature."(9)
This is also from the text of the Yi. "Yin and yang" are qi, that which is within form [i.e. physical]. That by which there is "alternation of yin and yang" is li (Order), which is above form [i.e. metaphysical]. The "Way" means the same as the Order. "That which issues from it" means when qi appears but there is nothing yet constituted [i.e. no particular things yet formed]. "Good," then, is a name for when the Order is in operation but there is nothing yet established. This falls under the category of yang; it is the source of being authentic. When "fulfilled," things are already constituted; in "human nature" the Order is already established. This falls under the category of yin; it is the establishment of [the possibility of] being authentic.
[f] Yuan and heng are the penetration of authenticity. Li and Zhen are the recovery of authenticity.
"Yuan" is originating, "heng" is penetrating, "li" is carrying out, "chen" is being correct: the Four Virtues [characteristic powers] of Qian. "Penetration" (tong) is just at the point when it appears and is bestowed on things, the "isiing" of goodness.(10) "Recovery" (fu) is when each one receives it and stores it within, the "fulfillment" of the nature. In the Diagram this is already the natures of the Five Phases.
[g] Great indeed is change, the source of human nature and endowment!
'Change' (yi) is the term for interchange and substitution. The hexagrams and lines are established merely from this. The interchange of yin and yang within heaven-and-earth, and the alternation of bestowing and receiving in the flow of the actualized Order in its midst [i.e. in the midst of the alternation of yin and yang], are also like this.(11)
Supplementary discussion from Master Zhu's letters and Classified Conversations:(12)
 Without the Tongshu, how could Master Zhou teach others how to understand the Supreme Polarity Diagram that he bequeathed? Therefore the Diagram was first clarified by the Tongshu.
 The first half of the Tongshu explains the Discussion of the Supreme Polarity [Diagram]. This moral Ordering [proceeds] from one to two and from two to five. For example, "In being authentic there is no acting" [one]; "In incipience there is good and evil" [two]; and the "Virtues" [five] readily correspond with the Supreme Polarity, yin and yang, and the five phases. One must see these details.(13)
 Question on "Being authentic is the foundation of the sage." Reply: This refers to the basis of ability. That by which the sage is a sage is simply authenticity.(14)
 Someone asked about Mr. Lü's statement that being authentic is the actuality (shiran) of Order. Reply: In a word, being authentic is being actualized (shi). This is how Mr. Lü discusses it. It is the same as Master Zhou's saying, "Being authentic is the foundation of the sage," which refers to the actualized Order. For example, Master Zhou's saying, "Being a sage is nothing more than being authentic," is the same as what the Zhongyong [The Mean in Practice] calls "the most perfectly authentic one under Heaven." This means that the person actually possesses this Order. What Wengong [Sima Guang] said about being authentic is the same idea as what the Daxue says about being authentic: it means that the person actualizes his mind/heart and does not delude himself.
 Question about "The alternation of yin and yang is called the Way. That which issues from it is good. That which fulfills/constitutes it is human nature." Reply: "The alternation of yin and yang" is the Order of heaven-and-earth. It is like "Great indeed is the originating power of Qian! The myriad things rely on it for their beginnings." "That which issues from it is good" means "the Way of Qian transforms and each receives its correct nature and endowment." "That which fulfills/constitutes it is human nature." This section is a discussion of the idea that heaven-and-earth bring into being the myriad things.
 "The alternation of yin and yang are called the Way" is the Supreme Polarity. "That which issues from it is good" is simply the idea of "generating and regenerating," which falls under the category of yang. "That which fulfills/constitutes it is human nature" is the idea that "each receives its correct nature and endowment," which falls under the category of yin....
 Zhiqing asked about "Li and zhen are the recovery of authenticity," giving the example of the Teachers's comment below that "'recovery' is like storing away." The Teacher replied: "Recovery" is just coming back. This is a sentence that Master Zhou added. Confucius [in the Xici] merely said, "The transformation of the way of Qian [is how] each [thing receives] its correct nature and endowment." Further reply: ...(15)
[Zhang's note:] This section discusses the sage's completion of this actualized Order, which is the foundation of the Five Constants and the Hundred Practices.
[a] Being a sage is nothing more than being authentic.
That by which the sage is a sage is no more than his completing the actualized Order. This is the same as what is called [in the Diagram] the Supreme Polarity.
[b] Being authentic is the foundation of the Five Constant [Virtues] and the source of the Hundred Practices.
The "Five Constants" are humanity, appropriateness, propriety, wisdom, and faithfulness. They are the natures of the Five Phases. The "Hundred Practices" are being filial, being fraternal, being loyal, being compliant, etc. They are the images of the myriad things. When one has completed the actualized Order, then the Five Constants are not deficient and the Hundred Practices are cultivated.
At the yin point of stillness, authenticity is certainly never nonexistent; we merely call it imperceptible because it is unformed. [Likewise,] it is not that authenticity exists only after reaching the yang point of activity; we simply call it perceptible because it can be perceived. [But even] when still and imperceptible it is perfectly correct. Only after it is active and perceptible can its clarity and penetration be perceived.
[d] When the Five Constants and Hundred Practices are not authentic, they are wrong, blocked by depravity and confusion.
If not authentic, the Five Constants and Hundred Practices all lack actuality. This is what is meant by "without authenticity there would be nothing."(18) In stillness to be incorrect is to be "depraved." In activity to be "unclear and unpenetrating" is to be "confused" and "obstructed."
[e] Therefore one who is authentic has no [need for] undertakings (shi).
Being authentic, the multitude of principles are naturally at the ready (bei). Without depending on effort or thinking, one easily complies with the Way of the Mean.(19)
[f] [Being authentic is] perfectly easy, yet difficult to practice.
Since the actualized Order is natural, it is "easy." Since human artificiality counterfeits it, it is "difficult."
[g] When one is determined and precise, there is no difficulty with it.
To be "determined" is the decisiveness of yang. To be "precise" is the preservation of yin. With the courage of decisiveness and the certainty of protection, human artificiality cannot counterfeit it.
[h] Therefore [Confucius said], "If in one day one could subdue the self and return to propriety, then all under Heaven would recover their humanity."(20)
To subdue and cast out egotism and return to follow the natural [Heavenly] Order is the most difficult thing in the world. However, the opportunity can be decided in one day, and it can be followed to the point of all under Heaven recovering their humanity. Being determined and precise is as easy as this.
From the Classified Conversations:
 Question on "Being authentic is the foundation of the Five Constants." Reply: Being authentic is the substance of penetration and the container of earth.[?](21)
 The second chapter on being authentic discusses the Supreme Polarity being present in human beings.(22)
 Question on "Being authentic is the foundation of the Five Constant [Virtues]." Is this the same as this actualized Order, which can be subdivided into the functions of these five? Reply: Yes.(23)
[Zhang's note:] This section uses authenticity, incipience, and virtue to clarify the sequence of entering the Way, which is the the path set out upon together by sages, worthies, and the spiritual.
[a] In being authentic there is no [intentional] acting (wuwei).
The actualized Order is natural (ziran). How can there be any [intentional] acting? It is the same as the Supreme Polarity.
[b] In incipience there is good and evil.(25)
Incipience is the imperceptible [beginning] of activity. It is that according to which good and evil are differentiated (fen). For at the imperceptible [beginning] of activity in the human mind/heart, the natural [Heavenly] Order will certainly be found right there; yet human desires will also have sprouted within it. This is an image of yin and yang.
[c] As for the [Five Constant] Virtues, loving is called humanity (ren), being right is called appropriateness (yi), being principled (li) is called propriety (li), being penetrating is called wisdom (zhi), and preserving is called honesty (xin).
The Way apprehended by the mind/heart is called "virtue." In its differentiation (bie) there are the applications (yong) of these five [virtues], and we name their substances (ti) accordingly. They are precisely the natures of the Five Phases.
[d] One who is by nature like this, at ease like this, is called a sage.
The "nature" is what is obtained alone from Heaven. "At ease" means originally complete in the self. "sage" is a designation for one who has enlarged and transformed it [the self]. This is one whose authenticity is entirely established, whose incipiencies are entirely clear, and whose virtues are entirely developed (bei), all without depending on study and effort.
[e] One who recovers it and holds onto it is called a worthy.
'Recover' means to come back and reach for it. "Hold onto" means to protect and support it. "Worthy" is a designation for one whose talent and virtue surpass others. This is one who thinks about authenticity and looks into incipiencies in order to fulfill his virtue and have the means to preserve it.
[f] One whose subtle signs of expression are imperceptible, and whose fullness is inexhaustible, is called Spiritual.
When one's subtle signs of expression are mysterious and imperceptible, and one's fullness is all-encompassing and inexhaustible, then that is the mysterious functioning and unknowability of the sage.
 The Tongshu's chapter [beginning with] "In being authentic there is no acting" discusses the three kinds of people: the sage, the worthy, and the spiritual.(26)
 [a-b] [In the sentence] "In being authentic there is no acting," "authentic" is the actualized Order and "no acting" is like [the term] "silently inactive."(27) The actualized Order must connect activity and stillness, yet its fundamental substance is without activity. [In the sentence] "In incipience there is good and evil," "incipience" is the first subtle sign of activity. With activity (dong) there is [intentional] acting (wei), and good and evil take shape. In being authentic there is no acting, so it is simply good. Since in activity there is acting, there is good and there is evil.(28)
 Zeng asked about "In authenticity there is no acting; in incipience there is good and evil." Reply: Authenticity is actualized Order. There is nothing that is not done. It is just [what is meant by] "What Heaven endows is called the nature," and "When pleasure, anger, pity, and joy are not yet expressed is called equilibrium (zhong)."(29) Incipience is the first subtle sign of activity, the subtle beginning of activity. Right and wrong, good and evil, are perceivable in this. At the arising of a thought, if it is not good, then it is evil. As Mencius said, "The Way is twofold: either humane or not humane, that's all."(30) Virtue comprises nothing more than these five: humanity, appropriateness, propriety, wisdom and honesty are the substance of virtue. Love, appropriateness, Order, penetration, and protection are functions of virtue.(31)
 As for Lianxi's statement, "In being authentic there is no acting; in incipience there is good and evil," when talent is authentic then it will be practiced without anything being undertaken, and in the incipient [activity] will be the distinction between good and evil. At that moment one must exhaustively examine [oneself] to recognize right from wrong. At first there will be tiny, brief, subtle indications. When one has exhaustively examined oneself for a long time, one will gradually see their full extent. Naturally there will be moral [dao] Order [in this]. The gaps therein define the incipient, subtle indications and differentiate good and evil. If one can analyze it in this way, then things will be investigated and knowledge perfected. With knowledge perfected, intentions will be made sincere. With intentions sincere, the mind/heart will be rectified, the self will be cultivated, the family will be regulated, the state will be well-governed, and all under heaven will be at peace. It will be like a torrent of water, beyond one's own capacity, or like [General] Tian Tan's tactic of fastening torches to oxen to make them unstoppable.(32)
 Daofu(33) said: Authenticity is the actualized Order of nature; it does not depend on effort. At the point of incipient activity, good and evil become manifest. The authenticity of goodness, then, is the Five Constant Virtues. The Sage does not need to avail himself of cultivating activity; he quietly completes it. The worthy requires an effort to recover it. Although the worthy must wait and the sage is simply born [with the capacity], nevertheless as far as their achievement goes they are the same. Therefore it says, "One whose subtle signs of expression are imperceptible, and whose fullness is inexhaustible, is called Spiritual." Reply: Certainly it is like this. But incipience is the subtle sign of activity. It is the interval between wanting to act and being about to act. Since there is good and evil [here], one must understand them at this point. If one waits until the expression is already manifest, then one will not be able to regulate one's undertakings, much less give rise to understanding. This is why the sage and the worthy say, "The noble person (junzi) is cautious over what he does not see and apprehensive over what he does not hear."(34) The point of subtle incipience is extremely important.(35)
 Question on the section, "In being authentic there is no acting; in incipience there is good and evil." Can this be regarded as complementary to the Discussion of the Supreme Polarity Diagram? Reply: Yes. Master Zhou's writing all discusses this moral order (daoli). [The questioner] then referred to the section from "When pleasure, anger, pity, and joy are not yet expressed is called equilibrium" to the section "Mind/heart is unitary."(36) The Masters Cheng continued Master Zhou's teaching; did they both explain this within [the concept of] the Supreme Polarity? Reply: Yes. Question: Does all of this discuss this moral order being such that moral effort must nourish the unexpressed [mind/heart]? Reply: There is moral effort for the unexpressed, and there is also moral effort to be applied to the expressed [mind/heart]. If the expressed is not managed, one will either fail to achieve [anything] or get it wrong. It is just that there should be priorities in time and importance between the efforts on the unexpressed and on the expressed.(37)
 "In being authentic there is no acting" just means constantly preserving this actualized Order here. When one can first perceive incipient [activity], i.e. when one can first recognize good and evil, if this mind/heart is let go and not preserved then it has been turned upside down. How can it distinguish good and evil?
 Someone mentioned [Cai] Jitong's(38) statement:
The Tongshu says, "In being authentic there is no acting; in incipience there is good and evil." The [Discussion] of the Supreme Polarity [Diagram] says, "Only human beings receive the finest and most numinous [qi]. With physical form they are born, and their spirit produces understanding. Their five-fold nature is stimulated to activity, and good and evil are distinguished." These two statements are like the two sides [of a coin]. But since he says "no acting," how can there be good and evil incipiencies? I fear that this is a place where Master Zhou has failed to maintain consistency.
What about this? Reply: At the time of "silent inactivity," of course, authenticity has no acting. When there is stimulation and activity, then there is good and evil. Incipience is where there is activity. In general, human nature cannot be inactive. It is only right in terms of where [and when] the activity ceases and proceeds. When these are right [or appropriate to the situation], then the virtue of love is called humanity, and [the virtue] of being right is called appropriateness. When these are not right, then it is totally reversed. How can human nature be inactive? It is just that we must differentiate within it the natural [Heavenly] Order and human desires.(39)
 Zhao Zhidao asked: Master Zhou said, "In being authentic there is no acting; in incipience there is good and evil." This clarifies the unexpressed substance of the human mind/heart, and refers to the beginnings of its expressed phase. He probably wanted students to extend their [self-]examination to the subtle signs of germinal activity, to understand how to decide which to extirpate and which to adopt, so as not to lose [contact with] the original substance. Some think this is similar to Master Hu's phrase, "same substance, different function."(40) So, in my confusion I attempted to plot this in the following diagrams:
Although good and evil are [equal and] opposite [in Hu's theory], they must be differentiated as servant and master. Although the natural Order and human desire are different branches (pai), it is necessary to see them as legitimate (zong) and illegitimate.(41) [However, as in Zhou's theory,] the movement from authentic activity to goodness is like a tree [growing] from root to trunk and from trunk to branch. The continuity from top to bottom is the manifestation of the moral mind/heart (daoxin), or the outflowing of the natural Order, which is the fundamental master of this mind/heart and the legitimate descent-line (zhengzong) of authenticity. If it flowers off to the side like a parasitic growth, then although it may still be authentic activity, it is the manifestation of the human mind/heart (renxin) and the outflowing of selfish desire, which is considered evil. It rejects what the mind/heart originally possesses in favor of a temporary lodger. It rejects the legitimate origin of authenticity in favor of the illegitimate. If you differentiate them late, then your selection will not be pure. Then the guest might take advantage of the host, and the illegitimate son might usurp the [legitimate] descent-line.
Students should be able to examine what accords with and what opposes [the natural Order] between [the moments of] incipient subtlety and germinal activity. What comes out straight [i.e. as true, direct expression of authenticity and human nature] is the natural Order; what comes out deviant is human desire. What comes out straight is good; what comes out deviant is evil. What comes out straight is one's original possession; what comes out deviant is not one's true offspring. What comes out straight is rooted [in one's nature]; what comes out deviant lacks a source. What comes out straight is compliant; what comes out deviant is contrary; What comes out straight is correct; what comes out deviant is perverse.
We should positively guide what comes out straight, and extinguish what comes out deviant. When this effort is perfected, then the expression of our mind/heart will spontaneously come out on course, and will ensure our possession of Heaven's decree. In this way we can see that before the unexpressed [phase of mind/heart] there is goodness but no evil. As Master Cheng [Hao] said, "It is not the case that within human nature there originally are these two things [good and evil] in mutual opposition at birth."(42) He also said, "Generally speaking, in every case of good and evil, first there is good and then there is evil." I suppose this expresses it.
If we considered good and evil to be mutually opposed things, one vying with the other [as in the diagram of Hu's idea], then this would be the natural Order and human desires appearing together from the same source (tongchu yiyuan). The prior, unexpressed [phase of mind/heart] would already contain these two strands (duan), and "What Heaven endows is called human nature" [Zhongyong 1] would refer to something very dirty and impure. This is Mr. Hu's idea of "same substance, different function."
The Teacher replied: This explanation has got it.(43)
 Renjie asked about [Cai] Jitong's theory that in the section, "In being authentic there is no acting; in incipience there is good and evil; among the virtues, loving is called humanity...," Master Zhou did not maintain consistency [see above]. Since he says "In being authentic there is no acting," then how can he follow that with the words "good and evil"? [Zhu Xi] said: How do you see that? Renjie said: Since in being authentic there is no acting, I suspect that there is never any evil. How can the incipiencies of the learner's mind/heart be without evil? Reply: When it is not yet stimulated, the fivefold nature is completely contained [in the mind/heart]. How can there be anything but good? When it responds to events, then there is a point where attention fails, and this is evil. The sages and Worthies of antiquity trembled with fear lest before their lives were over their correctness would become like this. Yanzi was like this; he was never unaware of what was not good in him.(44)
 Some take good and evil as the distinction between male and female. Others take it to concern yin and yang. In general, when discussing two mutually opposed things, there is nothing that is not the Ordering of yin and yang. In terms of the distinction of yin and yang, we may speak of good and evil, and we may speak of male and female. It depends on how one is using it. Therefore good and evil can refer to yin and yang and can also refer to male and female.(45)
 [Concerning the passage:] "Of the virtues, loving is called humanity ... preserving is called honesty." The virtues are what human beings obtain in their minds/hearts. Loving (ai), being right (yi), being Ordered (li), being penetrating (tong), and preserving (shou) are the functions of virtue. Humanity, appropriateness, propriety, wisdom and honesty are the substances of virtue. Being Ordered means having pattern (you tiaoli). Being penetrating means comprehending (tongda). Preserving means certain (queshi). These three sentences refer to to the human body. Being authentic is the nature. Incipience is the feelings. The virtues refer to the combination of the nature and the feelings.(46)
 Question about [Zhu's comment] "'The "nature" is what is obtained alone from Heaven" [see above]. How can you say "obtained alone" (du de)?(47) Reply: This says that the sage completely embodies the clearest (qi), with no deficiency. This is what the sage alone obtains. This is as opposed to the discussion of the word "recovers" [see above]. One who "recovers" has already lost it and returns to the beginning. This is not the same as the sage's obtaining it alone. The word "at ease" (an) is opposed to the word "holds onto." To hold onto is to grasp; ease is spontaneous. In general Master Zhou's words are extremely well-suited for designating what is important and unimportant.
Yin asked: Was Master Zhou's learning obtained by himself in his heart/mind? Or was there something transmitted [from a teacher]? Reply: There must have been something transmitted. He was Lu Shen's son-in-law. Wengong's [Si-ma Kuang's] "Record of the Sou River" contains Lu Shen's affairs. He was a sincere and generous man.(48)
 "One whose subtle signs of expression are imperceptible, and whose fullness is inexhaustible, is called Spiritual." This says that his expression is subtle, mysterious, and imperceptible. His capacity is full to the brim and inexhaustible. The words "expression" and "fulness" refer to what can be seen by others. For example, "one who is by nature like this, at ease like this," and "one who recovers it and holds onto it" -- there are such people. And "one whose subtle signs of expression are imperceptible, and whose fullness is inexhaustible" -- even this is reasonable. The "spiritual" is simply the doings of the sage. It is not that there is a spirit apart from the sage, occupying another space.(49)
 [f] Question: The Tongshu mentions "spiritual" five times.(50) Are the meanings the same? Reply: They must accord with what you see there. Question: Does "spiritual" simply refer to the mysterious? Reply: Yes. There is also [the line in section 4] "That which is 'penetrating when stimulated' is spiritual." Hengqu [Zhang Zai] said, "The oneness [of a thing] makes it spiritual; its duality makes it unfathomable."(51) Referring to creative transformation we say, "suddenly here, suddenly there; that is spirit." Question: How do you speak of it within human beings? Reply: Consciousness (zhijue) is certainly spiritual. If you cut your hand then your hand perceives pain. If you cut your foot then your foot perceives pain. This is certainly spiritual. "Spirit is responsive, and therefore mysterious."(52)
 The Tongshu's statement, "In being authentic there is no [intentional] acting" is the Supreme Polarity; "In incipience there is good and evil" is yin and yang; "the virtues called humanity, appropriateness, propriety, wisdom, and honesty" are the Five Phases. They are all discussed in the Diagram [of the Supreme Polarity]. As for the rest, such as "unoccupied when still and direct when active" (ch.20), "propriety before music" (ch.13), "placid and harmonious" (ch.17), "determined and precise," they are all the Diagram's concept of the stillness and activity of yin and yang.(53)
4. SAGEHOOD 聖
[Zhang's note:] This section discusses the mysterious functioning of authenticity, spirituality, and incipience. Only the sage, who is of this nature and equanimity, is able [to be like this].
[a] That which is "completely silent and inactive"(54) is authenticity. That which "penetrates when stimulated"(55) is spirit (shen). That which is active but not yet formed, between existing and not existing, is incipient (ji).
That which is originally so and yet unmanifest is the substance of the actualized Order. That which is aptly responsive yet unfathomable is the functioning of the actualized Order. Between activity and stillness, substance and function, suddenly in the space of an instant there is the beginning of the appearance of the actualized Order, and the auspicious and inauspicious omens of the multitudinous phenomena.
[b] Authenticity is essential [jing, i.e. pure], and therefore clear. Spirit is responsive, and therefore mysterious. Incipience is subtle, and therefore obscure.
To be clear and bright in body, with a will like that of a spirit, is to be "essential" and "clear." "To hurry without haste, to arrive without going"(56) is to be "responsive" and "mysterious." Although the Order has already sprouted, events are not yet apparent; they are "subtle" and "obscure."
[c] One who is authentic, spiritual, and incipient is called a sage.
If one is "by nature like this, at ease like this," [chapter 3 above] then one is essential and clear, responsive and mysterious, and has the means to see into the obscure and subtle.
 "To be "completely silent and inactive" is to be authentic." Also, "Great indeed is the originating power of Qian! The myriad things rely on it for their beginning. It is the source of being authentic" [chapter 1 above]. One must understand that before this great originating power of Qian, which the myriad things rely on for their beginning, it is all the more "completely silent and inactive."(57)
 "Incipient good and evil" [chapter 3 above] refers to the masses of people. "Active but not yet formed, between existing and not existing" refers to the sage's tiniest active expression. This Order is wholly evident. "That which is "completely silent and inactive" is authentic." Up to where it is subtly active is incipience. Incipience lies between authenticity and spirit.(58)
 Lin asked: For entering into virtue there is nothing like using incipience. Is this the most essential? Reply: Yes. Question about the Tongshu's discussion of incipience: How is it between activity and stillness, substance and function? Reply: It is like when something is there and yet not there. [One can] see it in people.(59)
 Although incipience is already stimulated, it is at the point when stimulation has just occurred. When penetration (tong) is extended to the end, all is penetrated [comprehended]. If this is extended to the maximum it comes to harmonizing the myriad states. When the common people are in accord through changing times, this is also penetration.(60)
 [Question:] The Tongshu frequently discusses incipience. But this idea is not contained in the Supreme Polarity Diagram. Reply: [The "Discussion" says,] "The Five Phases are stimulated to activity." [Incipience] is when they are active but not yet differentiated [into good and evil]....(61)
 [b] Question about "Authenticity is essential, and therefore clear." The Teacher has explained it as "clear and bright in body, with a will like that of a spirit." But is this [what Zhongyong 21 means by] "When one is clear then one will be authentic"? Reply: Certainly we can see that [my] text here is rough. [But] Master Zhou's use of the word "essence" is the best. "Authenticity is essential" means it has nothing else mixed with it. For example, a lump of silver containing absolutely no copper or lead is thoroughly good silver. Therefore here I used "clear and bright" to explain it. "A will like that of a spirit" is precisely the idea that "the Way of perfect authenticity is to be able to foreknow (qianzhi)."(62)
 Anqing asked about "One who is authentic, spiritual, and incipient." How should students
follow this? Reply: Follow it by exerting effort (gongfu).(63) Authenticity is where the
ruler resides. Where it emerges in functioning is spirit. Incipience is where one chooses.(64) But the critical point is incipience.(65)
[Zhang's note:] This section says that when activity achieves its correctness, then functioning will achieve its harmony. If it does not achieve this harmony, then one is abused and injured. This is what is valuable about examining incipiencies.
[a] To be active and yet correct is called the Way.
The means by which activity becomes correct is by according with the multitudinous Way that everything follows.
[b] To be functioning and yet harmonious is called virtue.
The means by which functioning becomes harmonious is by achieving the Way in one's body, without depending on anything external.
[c] To rebel against humanity, to rebel against appropriateness, to rebel against propriety, to rebel against wisdom, and to rebel against honesty is to be completely depraved.
What is called the Way is nothing but the Five Constants. If not for these, then one's activity will be depraved.
[d] To be depraved in one's activity is abuse. To do so to an extreme is injury.
Without achieving the Way, one's functioning is not harmonious.
[e] Therefore the noble person (junzi) is cautious in activity.
Activity must be correct; then harmony will be found therein.
 Concerning the Tongshu's statement, "To be active and yet correct is called the Way. To be functioning and yet harmonious is called virtue," the Teacher said: Correctness is principle. If one achieves correctness even when active, the principle [of one's action] is certainly the Way. If one's activity is incorrect, then it is not the Way. Harmony is simply following principle. If one is accomodating in one's functioning, one certainly achieves this principle in oneself. If one is not accomodating in one's functioning, then one does not achieve this principle in oneself. Thefore the following statement, "To rebel against humanity, to rebel against appropriateness, to rebel against propriety, to rebel against wisdom, and to rebel against honesty is to be completely depraved," is simply this principle. This is why it also says, "The noble person is cautious in activity." Zhiqing said: In the Taijitu [shuo] it only says, "in activity generates yang; in stillness it generates yin." The Tongshu also discusses incipience (ji), which is in the gap between activity and stillness. There is also this point.
[Zhang's note:] This section says that the Way lies in equilibrium and correctness. When one can preserve it, practice it, and enlarge it, then the Way is completed and virtue is provided for.
[a] The Way of the Sages is nothing more than humanity, appropriateness, equilibrium, and correctness.
'Equilibrium' is the same as propriety. "Correctness" is the same as wisdom. The Diagram explains this fully.(66)
[b] Preserve it and it will be ennobling.
How can anything be valued as much as the virtue of Heaven in oneself?
[c] Practice it and it will be beneficial.
How can according with Order lead to anything but benefit?
[d] Enlarge it and it will match heaven-and-earth.
To fully develop and establish one's fundamental nature is nothing less than the complete substance [of heaven-and-earth].
[e] How can it not be easy and simple? How can it be difficult to know?
The substance of the Way is one's fundamental nature; therefore it is easy [to follow]. It is that which human beings certainly possess; therefore it is easy to know.
[f] ...By not preserving it, not practicing it, and not enlarging it.
Students who do this will, alas, miss their incipient (clues).
[Zhang's note:] This section says that if one's physical constitution contains any imbalance, then one will miss the mark; thus the value of instruction in cultivating the Way.
[a] Someone asked: "Who makes all under Heaven good?" Reply: "The teacher." "What do you mean?" "[He is one whose] nature is simply in equilibrium between firm and yielding good and evil."(67)
The so-called "nature" here refers to the physical endowment [qibing].(68)
[b] "I do not understand." Reply: "Firmness is good when it is appropriate, direct, decided, dignified, capable and certain. It is evil when it is violent, narrow, and limited. Yielding is good when it is compassionate, docile, and mild. It is evil when it is weak, indecisive, and treacherous."
Firmness and yielding are just the major differentiation of yin and yang; within each of them is the further yin-yang differentiation into good and evil. Evil is just being wrong or incorrect, yet goodness too may not necessarily hit the mark in all cases.
This refers to the correct way to achieve [fulfillment of] one's nature. However, in taking harmony to be equilibrium, [Zhou] is not in accord with the Zhongyong. What he refers to here is already-expressed (yifa) [activity] that neither goes too far nor not far enough. It is like what the Shu[jing] calls "holding fast to the Mean."(71)
[d] Therefore the sage establishes education, to enable common people to change their evil [tendencies], and on their own to reach equilibrium and stay there.
When one's evil [tendencies] are changed, then firmness and yielding are both good: one has the virtues of dignity and resoluteness, compassion and compliance, and lacks the afflictions of limitation and weakness. Reaching the Mean, one is sometimes dignified and resolute, sometimes compassionate and compliant, but always moderately regulated and lacking the imbalance of going too far or not far enough.
[e] Therefore "those who first become aware awaken those who become aware later,"(72) the unenlightened seek from the enlightened, and the Way of instruction is established.
Instruction is simply the means by which to work on people's evil [tendencies] and correct people's unequilibrium.
[f] With the Way of instruction established, then good people will proliferate. When good people proliferate, then the Court will be correct and all under Heaven will be well-governed.
This is how to make all under Heaven good.
What this chapter refers to as firmness and yielding is the same as the Two Modes in the Yi.(73) Adding "good" and "evil" to each is the same as the Four Images in the Yi.(74) The Yi goes on to add another level to make the Eight Trigrams, while this text and the Diagram stop at the Four Images. They can be considered water, fire, metal, and wood, and their point of equilibrium can be considered earth. The substance of the Way, then, is singular, while the details and outlines that people perceive are not the same. It is only in their fundamental substance that they do not differ, and so they proceed together and do not conflict.
 Question: In the Tongshu, are the Four Images, firm and yielding, good and evil all yin and yang? Reply: Yes.(75)
 Question on "[The sage's] nature is simply in equilibrium between firm and yielding, good and evil." Reply: This "nature" refers to the physical nature (qizhi zhi xing). Among the four, we reject both firm evil and yielding evil and emphasize either firm goodness or yielding goodness.(76)
 "Zhong" in the Zhongyong combines the meanings of "expressed and moderately regulated" and "going far enough and not too far." Therefore Master Zhou says, "Only equilibrium is harmonious and 'moderately regulated.' This is 'the all-encompassing Way of the world.'" If we do not recognize this principle then we will certainly not understand Master Zhou's words. This is why Master Cheng called zhong "the correct Way of the world;" the Zhongyong zhangju [Zhu's commentary] takes zhong in the Zhongyong as combining the meanings of zhong and he; and the Lunyu jizhu [Zhu's commentary on the Analects] takes zhong to be impartial and going far enough but not too far.(77)
[Zhang's note:] This section discusses the frequent shortcomings in the behavior of most people. If they value having a mind that understands shame, then they can be taught.
[a] In human life, it is unfortunate not to hear about one's errors. To lack shame is a great misfortune.
If one does not hear about one's errors, a person is uninformed.
[b] Only with a sense of shame can one be taught. If one hears about one's errors, then one can become a worthy.
If one has shame, then one is able to put forth effort and receive instruction. If one hears about one's errors, then one can understand what to change to become worthy. But if one cannot be instructed, then, although one hears about one's errors one will not necessarily be able to change. From this we see that the misfortune of lacking shame is even greater.
 "In human life, it is unfortunate not to hear about one's errors. To lack shame is a great misfortune." These two sentences are a single matter. Understanding shame arises from within one's heart/mind; hearing about one's errors comes from others. One must understand shame in order to reform one's errors. Therefore shame is important.(78)
[Zhang's note:] This section discusses those who are not yet able to be like the sage, who is authentic without thinking.
[a] The Hongfan says: "[The virtue of ] thinking (si) is called perspicacity (rui).... Perspicacity makes one a sage."(79) To be without thinking is the foundation. When thinking is penetrating, this is its function. When there is incipient activity on the one hand, and authentic activity on the other, with no thinking and yet penetrating everything,(80) one is a sage.
Perspicacity is penetration. To be without thinking is to be authentic. When thinking is penetrating, it is spiritual. This is what is meant by "One who is authentic, spiritual, and incipient is called a sage."
[b] If one does not think, then one cannot penetrate subtleties. If one is not perspicacious, then one cannot penetrate everything. Thus, [the ability] to penetrate everything arises from penetrating subtleties, and [the ability] to penetrate subtleties arises from thinking.
[The ability] to penetrate subtleties is perspicacity. [The ability] to penetrate everything is sageliness.
[c] Therefore thinking is the foundation of the sage's achievement and the opportunity for good fortune or misfortune.
The ultimate (perfection) of thinking can make one a sage, who penetrates everything. It can also enable one to perceive incipience and penetrate subtlety, and to avoid misfortune and calamity.
[d] The Yi says, "The noble person perceives incipience and acts, without waiting all day."(81)
This is perspicacity.
[e] It also says, "Knowing incipience is his spirituality."(82)
This is the sage.
 Question on "To be without thinking is the foundation. When thinking is penetrating, this is its function. [...] With no thinking and yet penetrating everything, one is a sage." I do not understand whether the sage does think or does not think. Reply: "With no thinking and yet penetrating everything" [characterizes] the sage. When it is necessary to think and then everything is penetrated, this is perspicacity. Shiju said: The sage's "silent inactivity" is without thinking. Only with stimulation is there penetration, in a particular response to it. Reply: The sage is not a dolt who only acts after being stirred by others, like Zhuangzi's "move when pushed, stop when pulled." It is just that once he thinks, then he penetrates. He does not wait for the death of a parent...(83)
 Incipience is the hint of an event. When there is a hint, then one asks where it leads to. This method makes use of thinking.
 In reference to the Tongshu's terms "penetrating subtleties" and "penetrating everything," [Zhu Xi] brought up what his teacher Li [Tong] had said: "When King Xuan of Qi spoke of being fond of sex, Mencius explained it thusly; when he spoke of being fond of wealth, he explained it thusly; when he spoke of being fond of courage, he explained it thusly.(84) In all [three] cases there was a moral principle that explained [i.e. connected] the future and the past. This is the moral principle of fully developing the mind/heart." At that time it was not understood. Now we know it is the moral principle of "penetrating everything."(85)
[Zhang's note:] This section says that for learning one must establish the will/determination. When one's determination is great, then all things can be penetrated.
[a] The sage emulates Heaven. The worthy emulates the sage. The literatus emulates the worthy.
"Emulates" means to hope for. (The character was originally written [differently].)
[b] Yi Yin and Yan Yuan were great Worthies. Yi Yin was ashamed that his prince was not Yao or Shun. If one person did not attain his rightful place, it was like being whipped in the marketplace. Yan Yuan "did not transfer his anger and did not repeat an error,"(86) and "for three months did nothing contrary to humanity."(87)
For this discussion, see the Shu and the Lunyu, which contain the affairs of both Worthies.(88)
[c] Be devoted to having Yi Yin's devotion. Learn what Yan Yuan learned.
This refers to the literatus emulating the worthy.
[d] If you exceed this you will be a sage. If you reach it you will be a worthy. Even if you do not reach it you will not miss out on an honorable reputation.
The three go as far as they can according to the shallowness or depth of the effort they apply. One will not miss out on an honorable reputation because one possesses the actuality of being good.
Mr. Hu [Hong] says, "Master Zhou was concerned that people have a deliberate plan, a healthy body and prosperous family, enjoy the world, and choose their favorite activities. Thus he says: Be devoted to having Yi Yin's devotion. He was concerned that people learn widely, work at writing, respect wisdom and ability, and pattern their behavior after silence and vacancy. Thus he says: Learn what Yanzi learned. People who are able to be this devoted and this learned will understand the extreme greatness contained in this book, and their application of it will be limitless.
 Dou asked:(89) Is "being devoted to having Yi Yin's devotion" being devoted to practice? Reply: It is simply not being devoted to oneself. People today serve as officials for the salary, but Yi Yin, "were he given the Empire he would have ignored it, were he given a thousand teams of horses he would not have looked at them."(90) Further reply: ...(91)
[Zhang's note:] This section discusses Heaven's generation and fulfillment of the myriad things through yin and yang. The sage, who educates and corrects the myriad people through humanity and appropriateness, is one with Heaven.
[a] Heaven generates the myriad things through yang, and fulfills the myriad things through yin. Generating is humanity. Fulfillment is appropriateness.
Yin and yang refer to qi. Humanity and appropriateness refer to dao. The details are explained in the Diagram.
[b] Therefore when a sage is above [on the throne], he nourishes the myriad things with humanity and corrects the myriad people with appropriateness.
This is what is meant by determining them with humanity and appropriateness.
[c] The Way of Heaven proceeds and the myriad things comply [with it]. The virtue of the sage cultivates [others] and the myriad people are transformed. Great compliance and great transformation leave no visible trace. Since no one understands them, they are considered spiritual.
The Way of Heaven, Earth, and the sage are one.
[d] Therefore everything under Heaven is originally contained in every person. How can the Way be distant? How can its methods be numerous?
The basis of all under Heaven is contained in the noble person. The Way of the noble person is contained in the mind/heart. The method of the mind/heart is contained in humanity and appropriateness.
 Humanity and appropriateness are like yin and yang, which are merely the same qi. Yang is upright qi; yin is qi that is tending to dissipate. Humanity is appropriateness that is tending to dissipate. [???] Appropriateness is humanity that has been restored.
 Question: Spring's planting and summer's growth are humanity. Autumn's harvest and winter's storage are appropriateness. Is this also what is meant by establishing the Way of Heaven and the Human Way? Reply: In this book this is the discussion of the two qi and the Five Phases.
[Zhang's note:] This section discusses the sage as the foundation of government, taking his pure heart/mind as essential, and employing the worthy as urgent.
[a] Teaching by speaking directly to everyone is not sufficient even in a village of ten households. How much more difficult in an extensive Empire with millions of people! I say: Purify the mind/heart, that is all.
"Pure" means unmixed. "Mind/heart" means the the mind/heart of the people's ruler.
[b] "Purify" means to do nothing contrary to the four [virtues of] humanity, appropriateness, propriety and wisdom, whether in activity or when still, in one's speech, appearance, seeing and hearing.
Humanity, appropriateness, propriety and wisdom are virtues of the Five Phases. Activity and stillness are the functioning of yin and yang. Speech, appearance, seeing and hearing are the behaviors of the Five Phases. Of the virtues, honesty is not mentioned, and of the behaviors, thought is not mentioned. [As for the latter omission,] in desiring not to act contrary [to the four virtues] we can certainly consider thought to be the master, which must seek out the actuality [i.e. the concrete manifestations] of these four.
[c] When his mind/heart is pure, then worthy and talented men will assist him.
The ruler selects people by himself. The Way of the minister is to agree and follow.
[d] When worthy and talented men assist him, the Empire will be well-governed.
When the various worthies each take responsibility for their office, then he [the ruler] need not depend on teaching by speaking directly to everyone.
[e] Purifying the heart/mind is indeed essential. Employing worthy men is urgent.
If the heart/mind is not purified, then one will be unable to employ worthy men. If one does not employ worthy men, then one will lack the means to widely transform.
[Zhang's note:] This section discusses the Way in which ritual and music are mutually necessary. It is the same as the meaning of yin and yang in the Diagram.
[a] Ritual (li) is Order (li). Music is harmony.
Ritual is yin; music is yang.
[b] Yin and yang are harmonious only when Ordered. Then the ruler is [truly] ruler, the minister is minister, father is father, son is son, elder brother is elder brother, younger brother is younger brother, husband is husband, and wife is wife. The myriad things are harmonious only when each achieves this Order. Therefore ritual is first and music follows.
This defines it with the concept of emphasizing stillness in central and correct humanity and appropriateness. In Master Cheng's discussion of reverent composure (jing), "spontaneous, harmonious music" is also [an example of] this principle. Students who do not know how to devote themselves to making harmonious music while holding onto reverent composure will seldom progress beyond the slow.
 Ritual and music are necessary for each other. But what is called music is only spontaneous harmony and pleasure in one's breast. It is not the type of pleasure that comes from expressing one's ideas and letting loose one's desires. But if one desires to have spontaneous pleasure in one's breast, without reverent composure one cannot. Therefore Master Cheng said, "With reverent composure there is natural pleasure." And Master Zhou also placed ritual first and music after, as we can see.
[Zhang's note:] This section says that learning must strive to actualize [one's moral potential]. This is what previous sections call being authentic. "Without authenticity there would be nothing;" there is nothing but hypocrisy in it.(92)
[a] For actualization to dominate [one's work] is good. For name [fame] to dominate is shameful. Therefore the noble person advances his virtue and cultivates his work with unceasing diligence, striving for the dominance of actualization. If his virtue and affairs are not prominent, he apprehensively fears that others will know [about it]; he wants to distance himself from shame. The inferior person, on the other hand, is simply hypocritical. Therefore the noble person is always at ease, while the inferior person is always anxious.
[One whose] actualization is cultivated and has no shame resulting from the dominance of name is therefore at ease. [One whose concern with] name dominates and has no goodness resulting from actualization being cultivated is therefore anxious.
 Master Cheng [Yi] said: "The student should strive for actualization, without wanting current fame. If one has the intention of gaining current fame, then one is false, and the great foundation is already lost. How can learning take place? When it is for fame or profit, regardless of differences in clarity or turbidity, the [lack of] benefit to the mind will be the same."(93) And [Cheng Hao] said: "With actualization there is name; name and actualization are one thing. One who is fond of name will find that giving in to name is empty. For example, [Confucius said:] 'When a gentleman dies, his name is no longer spoken in the world,'(94) which means that when there is nothing good that can be said one should not give in to name."(95)
[Zhang's note:] This section uses good and evil as two clues to clarify the matters of self-cultivation and governing [correcting] others. This is known as reciprocity.
[a] [What if I] do not measure up to a good person?(96)
Someone asks, "Suppose there is a good person, and I cannot measure up. Then what?"
[b] "If you do not measure up, then learn to do so."
The reply is that one must simply learn to be good.
[c] Question: "[What if] there is a bad person?"
He asks if someone is not good, then how does one handle it?
[d] "If he is not good, then inform him that he is not good. Furthermore, exhort him, saying, "Suppose you change; you will then become a noble person.""
The reply is that if there is a person who is not good, then one informs him that he is not good, and exhorts him to change. One informs him lest he not know that this behavior is not good. One exhorts him lest he not know that what is not good can be changed into goodness.
[e] "If one person is good and two are not good, then learn from the one and exhort the two."
This is also the reply. It says that if there is a mixture of good and evil people, then learn from the good and exhort the evil.
[f] "If someone says, "This person has done something that is not good, but it is not a great evil," then say, "Who makes no errors? How do we know that he cannot change? If he changes, then he can become a noble person. Not changing results in evil. Evil is what Heaven hates. How can he not fear [Heaven]? How do we know that he cannot change?"
This is also the reply. If one hears about a person who has made an error, although one cannot inform and exhort him in person, still one must reply like this, hoping he might hear about it and change himself. When one intentionally [lit. mindfully] opposes Order it is called evil. When one unintentionally neglects Order it is called an error.
[g] Therefore the noble person possesses all goodness, and there is no one who does not love and revere him.
There is no goodness he has not learned, therefore "he possesses all goodness." There is no evil he has not exhorted, therefore he does not abandon anyone to evil. Since he does not abandon anyone to evil, there is no one who does not treat him with love and reverence.
[Zhang's note:] This section brings to light the ultimate principle of activity and stillness. Penetrating throughout the creative process of transformation, there is nothing as exhaustive as this Way.
[a] That which has no stillness in activity and no activity in stillness is a thing (wu).
Having physical form, it is limited to one aspect [i.e. to one mode or the other].
[b] That which has no activity in activity, and no stillness in stillness, is spirit (shen).
Spirit is neither separate from physical form nor limited to physical form.
[c] It is not the case that having no activity in activity and having no stillness in stillness is neither activity nor stillness.
There is stillness within activity, and activity within stillness.
[d] Things, then, are not penetrating (tong). Spirit renders the myriad things subtle.
The above sentence is connected with the meaning that comes out below.
[e] The yin of water is based in yang; the yang of fire is based in yin.
Water is yin, and yet it is generated from [the number] one, so it is based in yang.(97) Fire is yang, and yet it is generated from two, so it is based in yin. The statement "spirit renders the myriad things subtle" is like this.(98)
[f] The Five Phases are yin and yang. Yin and yang are the Supreme Polarity.
This is the same as the statement [in the Discussion of the Diagram]: "The Five Phases are one yin and yang; yin and yang are the one Supreme Polarity." [Here it is] discussed in reference to the substance (ti) of the "spirit which renders the myriad things subtle."
[g] The Four Seasons revolve; the myriad things end and begin [again].
This is the same as the statement [in the Discussion of the Diagram]: "The five qi are harmoniously distributed, and the four seasons proceed.... The Non-Polar (wuji), the Two [modes], and the Five [Phases] subtly combine and congeal." [Here it is] discussed in reference to the function (yong) of the "spirit which renders the myriad things subtle."
[h] How undifferentiated! How extensive! And how endless!
Substance is fundamental and unitary; hence "undifferentiated." Function is dispersed and differentiated; hence "extensive." The succession of activity and stillness is like an endless revolution. This continuity refers to [the relationship of] substance and function. This section clarifies the ideas of the Diagram, which should be consulted.
 Question concerning "That which has no stillness in activity and no activity in stillness is a thing. That which has no activity in activity, and no stillness in stillness, is spirit." Does a so-called "thing" include human beings? Reply: Human beings are included. Question: Is "spirit" the creative process of transformation in Heaven-and-earth? Reply: Spirit is precisely this pattern (li). Question: Things are limited by having physical form. But since human beings have stillness in activity and activity in stillness, how can we say that they are like the myriad things? Reply: Human beings are certainly active within stillness and still within activity, yet still they are called things. In general, the term "thing" refers to formed qi having a fixed body. But since there is a certain flexibility within it, we must understand that implements are the Way, and the Way is implements. There is nothing separate from the Way, including things. All things have [are part of] this Order. For example, this bamboo chair is certainly an implement. As for its suitability, it itself has a certain Order within it.
 In this chapter, "That which has no stillness in activity and no activity in stillness is a thing" refers to physical implements. That which is physical cannot penetrate [other things]. Therefore, when it is active it has no stillness, and when it is still it has no activity. For example, water is only water, and fire is only fire. And so in reference to human beings, if they speak they are not silent, and if they are silent they are not speaking. Likewise in reference to things, if they fly they are not plants, and if they are plants they do not fly. "It is not the case that having no activity in activity and having no stillness in stillness is neither activity nor stillness" refers to the metaphysical Order. The Order is spiritual and unfathomable. When it is active, it is simultaneously still. Therefore [Zhou] says "no activity." When it is still, it is simultaneously active. Therefore [Zhou] says "no stillness." Within stillness there is activity, and within activity there is stillness. When still it is capable of activity, and when active it is capable of stillness. Within yang there is yin, and within yin there is yang. The permutations are inexhaustible.
Then he says, "The yin of water is based in yang; the yang of fire is based in yin." The yin of water and the yang of fire are things; they are physical. That by which they are based in yin and based in yang is Order; it is metaphysical. Huang Gan(99) says, "When we combine these two ideas they are complete. In terms of Order, activity and stillness are as follows: In stillness there is activity and in activity there is stillness; this is their substance. Being still yet capable of activity, and being active yet capable of stillness, is their function. In terms of things, activity and stillness are as follows: That which is active has no stillness, and that which is still has no activity; this is their substance. That which is active is incapable of being still, and that which is still is incapable of activity; this is their function."(100)
 Question regarding "That which has no activity in activity, and no stillness in stillness, is spirit." What is this principle? Reply: This explains [the passage in the Discussion of the Diagram] "Being active, it generates yang, and at the peak of activity, stillness. Stillness generates yin, and at the peak of stillness it returns to activity." This itself contains spirit within it. It is not categorized as yin, and is not categorized as yang. Therefore [Zhou] says, "When yin and yang are unfathomable it is called spirit." It is also like daytime activity and nighttime stillness. Daytime is certainly categorized as yang. But during the day, spirit does not allow for complete activity. [Likewise,] nighttime is certainly categorized as yin. But during the night, spirit does not allow for complete stillness. Spirit from this is spirit. But while spirit can control [?] day and night, day and night cannot control spirit. It is probably in this way that the "spirit which renders the myriad things subtle" displays its transcendental form. In terms of the connection between activity and stillness, its substance is always just like this. A discussion such as "The yin of water is based in yang; the yang of fire is based in yin" concerns what already has form and appearance. This is a rough discussion.(101)
 What is called spirit is from the beginning not separate from things. For example, Heaven and earth are things. How can Heaven's [function of] gathering together be only activity? How can Earth's [function of] bringing to life be only stillness?(102) These are spirit.(103)
 "The four seasons revolve, and the myriad things end and begin [again]." While the Way has things and seasons, it lacks form and body. If the Way lacked things and seasons, how could it generate [produce] as it does?
 "Undifferentiated" refers to the Supreme Polarity. "Extensive" refers to what is after yin-yang and the Five Phases. Therefore the last sentence says, "And how inexhaustible!" This refers to what is after the "extensive:" the inexhaustibility of the myriad things that come after yin-yang and the Five Phases.
[Zhang's note:] This section discusses the different functions of ancient music and modern music, according to [the distinction between] order and disorder.
[a] The ancient sages and kings systematized the ritual procedures and reformed education. The Three Bonds were corrected, the Nine Divisions were arranged, the hundred surnames [i.e. all people] were in great harmony, and the myriad things were all in accord.
"Bonds" are the main cords in a net. The Three Bonds are: the husband is the wife's bond, the father is the son's bond, and the ruler is the minister's bond. "Division" means category. The Nine Divisions appear in the "Great Plan" [chapter of the Shujing].(104) "Accord" means obey. This is what is meant by "after Order there is harmony."
[b] They created music to give expression to the airs of the eight [directional] winds and to pacify the dispositions of all under Heaven.
"The eight [kinds of musical] sounds that give expression to the winds of the eight directions" is found in the Guoyu (Conversations of the States). They "gave expression" and thereby made known the manifestations of Order. They "pacified" and thereby regulated the harmonious flow.
[c] Therefore the sounds of music are placid and not distressing, harmonious and not licentious. When they enter the ear they move the heart/mind; [yet] they are entirely placid and harmonious. Being placid, they calm the desirous heart/mind. Being harmonious, they ease the fierce heart/mind.
Being "placid" is an expression of Order. "Harmony" is a character of the placid. First placid, then harmonious is also [Zhou's] idea of "emphasizing stillness." However, the discussion of music by the ancient sages and worthies says "simply harmony." So what is here called "placid" is probably patterned after modern music; only later was its origin seen in the idea of being sedate and correct, calm and grave.
[Added by Zhang Boxing:] Master Zhu said: Following "the idea of 'sedate and correct, respectful and grave,'" I wish I had added the six words, "therefore extremely simple and vacant."
[d] To be easy-going and evenly-balanced is the height of virtue. In the transformation of all under Heaven, government is perfected. This is what is meant by the Way that matches Heaven-and-Earth, the Ultimate of antiquity.(105)
The desirous heart/mind is calmed and therefore evenly-balanced. The fierce heart/mind is eased and therefore easy-going. This refers to the greatness of the sages' transformative achievement in creating music. (Some say that "in the transformation" [hua zhong] should read "the transformation and fulfillment" [hua cheng]).
[e](106) Later generations have neglected ritual. Their governmental measures and laws have been in disorder. Rulers have indulged their material desires without restraint, and consequently the people below them have suffered bitterly. Rulers have claimed that ancient music is not worth listening to and replaced it by or changed it into modern music, which is seductive, licentious, depressive, and complaining. It arouses desires and increases bitterness without end. Therefore there have been cases of people destroying their rulers, casting away their fathers, taking life lightly, and ruining human relations, and it has been impossible to put an end to such atrocities.
They have done away with ritual and lacked restraint; therefore their music has been agitated, seductive and licentious. Government has been disordered and the people have suffered; therefore their music has been unharmonious, depressive and complaining. Being seductive and licentious, it therefore arouses desires and leads to taking life lightly and ruining human relations. Being depressive and complaining, it therefore increases bitterness and leads to destroying rulers and casting away fathers.
[f] Alas! Ancient music appeased the heart but modern music enhances desires. Ancient music spread a civilizing influence, but modern music increases discontent.
The difference between the ancient and the modern is simply that between the placid and the agitated, the harmonious and the unharmonious.
[g] To hope for perfect government without restoring ancient ritual and changing modern music is to be far off the mark.(107)
Only after restoring ancient ritual can one change modern music.
[Zhang's note:] This section discusses how the Way of music is connected with government. This is what is meant by "hearing its music, one knows its virtue."
[a] Music is based in government. When government is good and the people are at peace, then the minds/hearts of all under Heaven are harmonious. Therefore the sages created music to give expression to these harmonious hearts/minds. When it spreads throughout heaven-and-earth, the qi of heaven-and-earth is stimulated and there is great harmony throughout. When heaven-and-earth are harmonious, then the myriad things are compliant. Therefore the ancestral and natural spirits (shen qi) will approach [when sacrifices are offered], and birds and beasts will be tame.
Since the music of the sages was not created by unreasonable force, the mystery of its creation enables it really to apprehend the primal origin of sound (-qi). Therefore the wills of (?) Heaven and human beings mutually stimulate each other to activity, and the result is this.
 Question: The Commentary on the Tongshu says, "the mystery of its creation really enables it to apprehend the primal origin of sound."(108) I do not understand how we can still determine this. Reply: Today the only dispute is with the first note of the yellow bell. When this is high, the rest are all high. When this is low, the rest are all low. Thus it is difficult to attain the middle.(109) Question: What was Hu Anding's(110) [theory of] music like? Reply: It was in the same category.(111)
 Question on "the primal origin of sound." Master Zhu replied: The calendar experts greatly emphasize this original sound. When this is one is defined then what follows is defined; when the original sound is off then what follows is off. Only the system of the ancients, which today no longer exists, followed these principles [precisely]. [Such imprecision] will do for people, but laws cannot be imprecise. And in the case of music, today we can no longer verify them; today people can only discuss them. The production of all sounds comes from the human mind. When the human mind is active, things are caused to be so. When it comes to attaining the [ancient] system, this will not do.
[Zhang's note:] This section says that when the sound of music is quiet and the lyrics are good then there will be a corresponding effect on customs.
[a] When the sound of music is quiet then the listener's mind is pacified. When the
music's lyrics are good then the singer is respectful. Thus styles shift and customs change.
The influence of weird sound and passionate lyrics is also like this.
[Zhang's note:] This section says that what is essential in learning to be a sage lies in the unity of this mind.
[Someone asked:] "Can sagehood be learned?" Reply: It can. "Are there essentials?" Reply: There are. "I beg to hear them." Reply: Unity (yi)(112) is essential. To be unified is to have no desire. Without desire one is unoccupied (xu) when still and direct when active.(113) Being unoccupied when still, one will be clear (ming); being clear one will be penetrating (tong). Being direct in activity one will be impartial (gong); being impartial one will be all-embracing (pu). Being clear and penetrating, impartial and all-embracing, one is almost [a sage].
The point of this chapter is the most important. Although the meaning of the text is clear, it does no harm to explain it. If students are able to thoroughly contemplate it and energetically practice it, they will have the means to understand the truth of the Non-Polar (wu-chi) and the origin of the Two Modes and the Four Images. These are not external to this mind, and in the realm of daily functioning itself there is no separation from the power to use them.(114)
 "Unity" is the Supreme Polarity. "Unoccupied when still" is the stillness of yin. "Direct in activity" is the activity of yang. "Clear and penetrating, impartial and all-embracing" is the Five Phases. Basically what Master Zhou discusses is all related to the Supreme Polarity and the various moral principles.
 Master Zhou only says "Unity is having no desire." This expression (huatou) is eloquent, but unexpectedly difficult to pin down. How can ordinary people be without desire? Therefore [Cheng] Yichuan only discussed the word "reverent composure" (jing). ...
 Question: Master Zhou said, "Unity is essential. Unity is having no desire." What does this mean? Reply: Concerning "unity is having no desire," of course unity is having no desire. When a person tries to have no desire, how can the mind not be unified? Further question: How does this compare with Master Cheng's statement, "Focusing on unity (zhu yi) means reverent composure"? Reply: "Having no desire" and "reverent composure" are the same. This word "reverent composure" is extraordinarily clear. To seek to hold to reverent composure is somewhat like expending energy, which is not as good as being without desire altogether. People simply have desires, so this mind has a thousand starts and ten-thousand connections. The words of this chapter are extremely important.(115)
 Question on "Can sagehood be learned?... Unity is essential." Reply: This is a clear-sighted unity, not a muddled unity. Question: What is a muddled unity? Reply: There must be a critical point where reverent composure is understandable. If it is a reverent composure resulting from lumping everything into one, then it is not reverent composure. This is only speaking in general terms. "Clear and penetrating" refers to the self; "impartial and all-embracing" means being receptive to external things. In being unoccupied when still is the first attainment of caring and nourishing [for one's moral nature]. Only when there is clarity and penetration can one be impartial and all-embracing; if one strives to be impartial and all-embracing one definitely cannot do(?) it. "Unoccupied when still; clear and penetrating" means "to purify one's thoughts and approach the spiritual."(116) "Direct in activity; impartial and all-embracing" means "to benefit one's functioning and ease the body."(117)
 Question: "Unity" is pure oneness [homogeneity]. "Unoccupied when still" is when this mind is like clear, still water, without the slightest selfish desire filling it. Thus its activity completely accords with the outflowing of the natural Order, without the slightest selfish desire disturbing it. "Unoccupied when still" is substance; "direct in activity" is function. Reply: That's just how it is. "Unoccupied when still" is easy to see; "direct in activity" is difficult to see. "Unoccupied when still" is just as Yichuan [Cheng Yi] put it, "When there is mastery in [the mind's] equilibrium (zhong), then it is unoccupied. When it is unoccupied, then depravity cannot enter."(118) When things come and disturb it, then it becomes full [of non-essential considerations]. Being full, it is cloudy; being cloudy it is blocked. Being direct in activity is simply when the activity [of the mind] has not the slightest obstruction. If occasionally there is a selfish desire, then it will be obstructed and deflected. Whether or not you want it to happen like this, when there is a blockage [the mind's activity] will not be direct. Deflection leads to selfishness, and selfishness leads to narrowness.
 Question: How does "clear and penetrating, impartial and all-embracing" correspond with the Four Images? Reply: Simply in the manner of spring, summer, fall, and winter. Question: Does clarity correspond with winter? Reply: It is said to be like the point of activity. Question: Is it like the origin [of activity]? Reply: Yes. But this is metaphorical relationship; it is not really explained like this.(119)
[Zhang's note:] This section discusses the value of getting rid of selfishness in order to clarify Order. It does not consist in using examination to raise doubts.
[a] One who is impartial toward oneself will be impartial toward others. There has never been one who was not impartial toward oneself and yet was able to be impartial toward others.
This would be the sign of one who did not overcome his own selfishness, yet wanted official rules to regulate things.
[b] When one is not perfectly clear [ming] then doubts arise. Clarity is the absence of doubts. To say that being able to doubt is clarity is a thousand miles off the mark.
This would be the sign of one who could not first perceive, yet wanted to be clear by deliberately deceiving and untrustingly calculating. Thus clarity and doubt are actually polar opposites. "A thousand miles off the mark" does not even reach it!
[Zhang's note:] This section says that Order is the Supreme Polarity of the mind, human nature is what is received unequally [?], and the endowment is the single foundation of multiplicity. It demonstrates to people the learning of reverting to the foundation.
[a] The manifest and the subtle: without intelligence one cannot perceive them.
This discusses Order (li). Yang is bright, and yin is dark. Were it not for the numinous [power] of the Supreme Polarity in the human mind, how would one be able to discern it?
[b] There is firm good and firm evil, and the same for yielding. Rest in the mean [zhong] between them.
This discusses human nature (xing). The explanation refers to section 7; it is the Ordering of the Five Phases.
[c] The two [modes of] qi and the five phases transform and generate the myriad things. The five are the differentia and the two are the actualities; the two are fundamentally one. Thus the many are one, and the one actuality is divided into the many. Each one of the many is correct; the small and the large are distinct.
This discusses the endowment (ming). "The two [modes of] qi and the five phases" are that by which Heaven bestows the myriad things and generates them. From the product (mo) we can deduce the origin (ben); thus the differentiation of the five phases is the actuality of the two qi, and the actuality of the two qi in turn is based on the polarity of the one Order (yili zhi ji). Speaking of this in conjunction with the myriad things, it is simply the one Supreme Polarity [or the ultimate]. Going from the origin to the product, there is the actuality of the one Order, and the myriad things dividing it can be taken as its substance (ti). Therefore, among the myriad things each possesses the one Supreme Polarity; all things small and large have their own distinct portion.
This chapter has the same meaning as chapter 16.
 [This chapter title is] like the Xici and Wenyan [appendices to the Yi]; if they were Confucius' writing, why would they contain the words, "The Master said"? I have always had doubts about such places, just like Wufeng [Hu Hong] in his edition of the Tongshu. The original section headings were discarded, but above each section were added the words "Master Zhou said." Once the section headings of the Tongshu were discarded, the fact that within this section there originally were no such words as "order, nature, and endowment" made it impossible to understand. I think "The manifest and the subtle: without intelligence one cannot perceive them" discusses Order. "There is firm good and firm evil, and the same for yielding. Rest in the mean between them" discusses human nature. From here on discusses endowment. But the chapter did not contain these three words, until we added the three words that Master Zhou had said. Without these, this book would have followed the Xici and Wenyan of the Yi in the damage done by disciples. Question: In his [edition of the] Tongshu, why does Wufeng often substitute his own ideas? Reply: His problems are many.
 In this chapter, Master Zhou's first two sentences [a] refer to Order; the next three sentences [b] refer to human nature, and the next eight sentences [c] refer to endowment. The chapter does not contain these three words, yet it is just by means of these three headings that [the meaning of] the chapter can be revealed. The words in the chapter themselves certainly contain these categories. "Intelligence" and "the one" are the Supreme Polarity, and "the mean" is the mean attained by the endowment of qi. "Firm good and firm evil," yielding good and yielding evil, is the fivefold human nature, which corresponds to the Five Phases. There has never been any way to take this as the Supreme Polarity.(121)
 "The manifest and the subtle" simply means the various details of principle, such as the difficulty of understanding moral principle in human affairs on one's own. For example, the humanity of the ruler, the loyalty of the subject, the compassion of the father and the filiality of the son: these principles are extremely clear, but how intricate are yin and yang, nature and endowment, and the comings and goings of ghosts and spirits!
23. YANZI(122) 顏子
[Zhang's note:] This section refers to Yanzi to show the greatness of the Way. When one takes pleasure in oneself, then whether one is rich or poor cannot express it.
[a] Yanzi "had only one dish [of rice] to eat, only one gourdful [of water] to drink, and he lived in a squalid lane. Others could not have endured such distress, yet it did not alter his happiness."
For this discussion, see the Analects [6:9].
[b] Now, wealth and honor are what people love. Yet Yanzi, neither loving nor seeking them, took pleasure in being humble. What was in his mind?
This poses the question by bringing out the core [of the idea].
[c] In the world there is extreme honor and extreme wealth, which can be loved and sought after. Yet he [Yanzi] was one who differed from others in seeing what was great and ignoring what was petty.
The meaning of "extreme honor and extreme wealth that can be loved and sought after" is precisely what Master Zhou taught the Masters Cheng [quoting the Chengs]: "He always instructed us to look for the things that Zhongni (Confucius) and Master enjoyed. What activities did they enjoy?"(123) But students must think deeply and concretely embody them; one cannot merely explain them in words.
[d] Seeing what was great, his mind was at peace. With his mind at peace, nothing was insufficient. With nothing insufficient, then wealth and honor, poverty and humble station were all the same [to him]. Being all the same, then he was able to transform and equalize [others, i.e. regard others as equal].(124) Thus Yanzi was second only to the Sage [Confucius].
The meaning of the word "equalize" (qi) is complex. I fear it may be an error. It may mean either "transform" (hua), as in "being great and transforming,"(125) or it may mean "equal to," as in "being equal to the sage."(126) "Second only" means he is almost equal, but not quite.
 Question on Yanzi's "not altering his happiness." This is when selfish desires are eliminated. The natural Order flows through the one mind, stopping nowhere. This is the principle of the highest wealth and honor. Among all things in the world there is nothing more valuable. How can there be anything more pleasurable? Master Zhu replied: What Master Zhou means by highest honor and highest wealth is in reference to being poor and humble. Now we use it in reference to fear of seeming uncultured. But this does not eliminate selfish desire, such as the mouth's [fondness] for tastes and ear's for sounds; these too are desires. When we get what is desired this further binds us to selfish desire. How can we be happy enough? If we don't get what is desired, we just seek it further, and the mind is still not satisfied. The only thing to do is to eliminate selfish desire. The natural Order flows though activity and stillness, speech and silence thoughout our daily functioning; there is nothing that is not the natural Order. When it fills the heart, how can it not be pleasurable? This has nothing to do with being poor, thus it doesn't diminish one's happiness.
 Master Cheng said that the minds of the sages and worthies were one with the Way, and so anywhere they went they were happy. If we take the Way as a [separate] thing and take pleasure in it, then the mind and the Way are two. This is not what Yanzi did.
[Zhang's note:] This section speaks of the Way and virtue. The highest honor can only be attained by exalting one's teachers and being affectionate with one's friends.
[a] The most revered thing in the world is the Way; the most honored is virtue; the most rare [difficult to attain] is the human being. What is rare about the human being is having the Way and virtue in one's own body.
This summarizes the meaning of the chapter above. Although Order is clear, nevertheless the human mind is darkened by material desire, and few are able to understand it. Thus every word is carefully weighed.
[b] Without teachers and friends, it is impossible to seek out and obtain in one's own body that which makes the human being the most rare.
This is why the noble person must exalt his teachers and feel affection for his friends.
[Zhang's note:] This section says that morality depends on having teachers and friends. A person without teachers and friends misses the importance of their meaning and the pleasure of associating with them.
[a] Morality [daoyi] is valued and honored only when it is possessed by a person.
Master Zhou frequently stated this idea. It is not [mere] reiteration; it is the urgent meaning of a repeated injunction.
[b] People at birth are ignorant. As they grow, if they have no teachers and friends they become stupid. This is why morality acquires honor and reverence when it is possessed by a person in reliance on teachers and friends.
I think this passage connects with the following sentence.(127)
[c] Is the meaning [of teachers and friends] not important? Is it not a pleasure to associate with them?
Few people understand this importance and this pleasure.
[Zhang's note:] This section speaks of [Confucius' disciple] Zhong You [Zilu], who was happy to hear about his transgressions and had the courage to improve himself. People today are unable to reform, even though they harm themselves.
[a] Zhong You [Zilu] was happy to hear about his transgressions, and his good name [reputation] was inexhaustible. Today, when people transgress, they are not happy for others to correct them. It is like concealing one's illness and avoiding a doctor, preferring to harm oneself without being aware of it. Alas!
[Zhang's note:] This section discusses the motive forces (ji) in the world. Power is what creates conflict. When strong, it is difficult to overcome.
[a] The empire is simply power. Power is either weak or strong.
In the alternation of weak and strong, power necessarily goes to the strong. The weak get weaker and the strong get stronger.
[b] Extreme strength cannot be overcome. If one recognizes its strength and promptly opposes it, one can [succeed].
If one recognizes it before its strength peaks, then one might be able to overcome it.
[c] As for the effort of overcoming [strength], if one does not recognize it early the effort will not be easy.
Overcoming it lies within human effort. Whether the effort is difficult or easy depends on whether it is recognized early or late.
[d] When effort is exerted without success, it is due to Heaven. When it is not recognized or no effort is made, it is due to the person.
If one does not recognize it, one will not know to apply effort. Without effort, then there is no remedy regardless of recognition.
[e] Is it due to Heaven? Then how can a person find fault?
We might ask about power that cannot be overcome. Does it result from the actions of Heaven? If it is not Heaven, and comes from what the person does, then there is nothing that can exonerate the fault.
 Question on "Extreme strength cannot be overcome. If one recognizes its strength and promptly opposes it..." Master Zhu replied: This discusses power in the world such as the First Emperor of Qin. His strength was so great that the six states could not resist. At the end of Eastern Han, the eunuchs' authority was so strong that they could not be eliminated. At the beginning of the Shaoxing [period] they beheaded Chen Shaoyang just to consolidate power south of the lower Yangtze valley, but this extreme strength was overcome.(128) It is difficult to recognize the motive force of strength, yet overcoming it is easy.(129)
[Zhang's note:] This refers to writing as a vehicle for the Way. People who write without using the Way are like an empty carriage that is not capable of being used.
[a] Writing is the vehicle of the Way. When the wheels and shafts of a carriage are ornamented but cannot be used, the ornamentation is in vain. How much more so an empty carriage!
"Writing is the vehicle of the Way," just as a carriage is the vehicle of things. In making a carriage it is necessary to ornament the wheels and shafts; in writing it is necessary to improve upon one's words and explanations. In both cases one desires others to love and use it. But when I ornament something and others cannot use it, it is empty ornamentation with no concrete use. How much more so a carriage that does not carry things, or writing that is not a vehicle for the Way! Although beautifully ornamented, what good is it?
[b] Literary expression is an art. The Way and virtue are real (shi). If one is devoted to what is real and expresses it artistically in writing, its beauty will be loved. Being loved, it will be transmitted, and Worthies will be able to learn it and achieve its object. This is education. Thus it is said, "When one's words are not written, they will not go far" (Zuozhuan, Duke Xiang, 25th year).(130)
This is like a carriage carrying things with wheels and shafts that are ornamented.
[c] But the unworthy will not learn it even if father and elder brother are nearby, or teachers and tutors exhort them. Even if forced, they will not comply.
This is like an already ornamented carriage that someone will not use.
[d] They do not know how to devote themselves to the Way and virtue; they lower themselves to being experts in literary expression. This is nothing more than art [i.e. it does not express concrete reality]. Alas! This is a long-standing defect.
This is like a carriage that does not carry things but is just beautifully ornamented. Some question whether those who have virtue necessarily have words; [if not,] they would not necessarily depend on artistic expression to transmit [their ideas]. Master Zhou, in this chapter, seems to distinguish [between morality and literary expression], taking literary expression as an activity that requires effort. What about this?
I say, the human capacity for virtue can be possessed partially; it can be long or short. For some, their ideas are brilliant and words are insufficient to express them. These will not be transmitted far. Thus Confucius said, "Language should be far-reaching" (Analects 15:40). And Master Cheng said, "We get the ideas of the 'Western Inscription' [by Zhang Zai], but had it not been for the power of Zihou's [Zhang's] brush, he could not have done it [i.e. transmitted his ideas]."(131) This is correctly put. But words sometimes can be few and yet not lacking virtue. There are usually many who have virtue and can express it in words. There are usually few who have virtue and yet are unable to express it in words. Students must first devote themselves energetically to virtue.
[Zhang's note:] This section speaks of the greatness of the Way of the Sage [Confucius], whose comprehensiveness is not easy to understand. Only Yanzi's profound depth and essential purity began to be able to apprehend it. To seek hurriedly to understand it will result in extreme shallowness.
[a] "To those who are not eager to learn I do not explain anything, and to those who are not bursting to speak I do not reveal anything. If I raise one angle and they do not come back with the other three angles, I will not repeat myself" (Analects 7:8).(132)
For this discussion see the Analects. It refers to the Sage's teaching. He required [his students to have] ability, and did not underemphasize their active participation.
[b] "The Master said, 'I wish to do without speech. ...What ever does Heaven say? Yet the four seasons run their course through it and all things are produced by it'" (Analects 17:17).(133)
For this discussion also, see the Analects. It speaks of the Way of the Sage not being dependent upon words for its brilliance. Therefore he says this.
[c] So then, were it not for Yanzi, the Sage's comprehensiveness (yun) might not have been seen. Yanzi was the one who brought out the Sage's comprehensiveness and taught ten thousand generations without limit. Was he not equally profound?
"Comprehensiveness" is the term for what is contained within. Zhongni [Confucius] left no traces, but Yanzi subtly left traces [in the form of his personal example]. Confucius' teaching was important to express, and he never expressed the comprehensiveness of his Way in his own words. Among his students, only Yanzi grasped its entirety. Therefore, because of the traces of his progress and cultivation, Confucius' comprehensiveness could later be seen. It is like the fact that Heaven does not speak, yet the four seasons run their course and all things are produced.
[d] The ordinary person, having heard or understood one thing, is anxious that others will not quickly know he has it. To be in haste to be known by others by reputation is very superficial.
Sages in general are of different kinds; the higher and lower are very far apart. There are those whose clarity (ming) does not depend upon teaching. Their words are, accordingly, correct, profound, and extremely substantial. They warn against the dangers of shallowness and superficiality. Compared to the profundity of the Sage's words, the ordinary person's words are superficial. The one is profound and substantial, the other is shallow and superficial. The former speaks of the head, the latter speaks of the tail. These reciprocal phrases clarify it.
 Students often rely on language to observe the sages and do not examine the reality of the flow of the natural Order, which does not depend on words to manifest itself. In this way, by following the words one will not get what they are saying. Therefore the Master (Fuzi) issued this warning. He also said, "the four seasons run their course and all things are produced;" there is nothing that is not the natural Order displaying the reality of its flow. It does not depend on words to be seen. In the Sages alternation of activity and stillness, there is nothing that is not the expression of the essential meaning of the wondrous Way. It is simply Heaven. How can it depend on words for its manifestation? As Master Cheng said, "The Way of Confucius is like the clarity of the sun and stars, but it suffers from disciples who cannot fully understand it." Therefore he says, "I wish to do without speech." Yanzi silently understood, but the others could not help asking questions. Therefore [Zigong] said, "What will be handed on by your disciples?" (Analects 17:17). He [Confucius] also said, "What ever does Heaven say? Yet the four seasons run their course through it and all things are produced by it." So we can say that this is extremely clear.
[Zhang's note:] This section speaks of the Sage's essence and comprehensiveness in terms of the Yi, which is the ancestor of writing and the progenitor of meaning and principle. The comprehensiveness of Heaven and Earth, ghosts and spirits, is all contained in this.
[a] The essence of the Sage was displayed in the drawing of the hexagrams [of the Yi].(134) The comprehensiveness of the Sage is expressed by means of the hexagrams. Were the hexagrams not drawn, the essence of the Sage could not have been seen. Were it not for the hexagrams, it would almost be impossible to know about the comprehensiveness of the Sage.
"Essence" means subtlety, like the Yi before [the hexagrams] were drawn, or the most rudimentary Order. When Fuxi drew the hexagrams, he concentrated simply on clarifying this [Order]. "Comprehensiveness" means the general content of the hexagrams, such as the principle of auspicious or inauspicious growth or decline, or the Way of progress and retreat, preserving or losing -- the broadest matters. Given the hexagrams, their forms can be followed.
[b] How can the Yi merely be one of the Five Classics? It is the mystery of Heaven and Earth, ghosts and spirits!
Yin and yang have their natural fluctuations; hexagram figures have their natural structures (ti). This is how the Yi as a book is the ancestor of writing and the progenitor of meaning and principle. But not only that. Although the general regulation of yin and yang [pervades] the great extent of Heaven and Earth and the obscurity of ghosts and spirits, its principle was fully contained in the drawing of the hexagrams. This is how the essence and comprehensiveness of the Sage are necessarily contained therein.
 In "the essence of the Sage was displayed in the drawing of the hexagrams; the comprehensiveness of the Sage is expressed by means of the hexagrams," Lianxi looks at the Yi, but is also able to look at life.(135)
 "Essence" and "comprehensiveness" are not the same. "Essence" means the finest essence. "Comrehensiveness" means including all moral principles. Question: When Fuxi first drew [the hexagrams], was his comprehensiveness already manifest therein? Reply: We can say that it was already contained therein, but we cannot say that was already manifested therein. When he first drew them, there was not yet the idea of the four virtues of Qian.(136) And when King Wen first extended [their meanings], although he and Confucius were able to extend the ideas [by writing the texts], their moral principles did not go beyond those contained in Fuxi's original drawings. This is what is meant by [Fuxi's] comprehensiveness. It is like the comprehensiveness of wearing a worn-out robe, which can contain [all] inside.(137)
[a] "The noble person is creatively active and unceasing in being authentic."(138) But he must "control his anger and repress his desires,"(139) and move towards the good and correct his transgressions(140) before he can reach his goal. Among the functions of Qian this is the best. Of the greatness of Sun and Yi, nothing surpasses this. The Sage's meaning is profound indeed!
This uses the line text of Qian and the Greater Image Commentary of Sun and Yi to explain how to think about being authentic. "Creatively active and unceasing" is the substance (ti). Eliminating evil and advancing the good is the function (yong). Without substance, the function would have nothing to enact. Without function, the substance would have no means [to be enacted]. Thus [Zhou] discusses them in terms of these three hexagrams combined.
Some say that [in the third sentence] the word qi ("this") could also be mo ("nothing").(141)
[b] "The auspicious, the inauspicious, repentance and regret arise from activity."(142) Alas! The auspicious is only one [of the four]. Can we not be careful about activity?
Of the four, there is one good and three bad. Thus people commonly meet with blessings infrequently and with calamities often. One cannot be too careful.
This chapter discusses what the Yi says about the comprehensiveness of the Sage.
 Question: The beginning of this section, "control his anger and repress his desires, and move towards the good and correct his transgressions," is all about the process of self-cultivation. Then it abruptly speaks about activity. Why is that? Master Zhu replied: What is meant by "control his anger and repress his desires, and move towards the good and correct his transgressions," is that in activity there are various kinds of transgressions and failings, so before acting one must examine them. The absence of inauspiciousness, repentance, and regret is why [Zhou] mentions activity the second time.(143)
[a] There is a foundation for ruling the world; it is called the [individual] person.(144) There is a model for ordering the world; it is called the family.
"Model" (ze) means a thing that can be observed and taken as a rule (fa). In vernacular speech it would be zelie (law) or zeyang (style, type).
[b] The foundation must be proper (duan); the proper foundation is nothing but the authentic mind. The model must be good; the good model is nothing but harmonious relations.
If the mind is not authentic, the person cannot be correct. If relations are not harmonious, the family cannot be regulated.
[c] The family is difficult [to regulate], while the empire is easy. For the family is close, but the state is distant.
What is close is difficult; what is distant is easy. But if one does not do the difficult first, one will never be able to do the easy.
[d] If family members are separated, it is surely caused by the wife. Thus Kui (Opposition) comes after Jiaren (Family Members). "When two women live together, their wills do not go together."(145)
Kui follows Jiaren in the hexagram sequence of the Yi. "When two women..." comes from the text of the Tuan commentary on Kui. [The image of] two women is [based on] the Kui hexagram's [two component trigrams,] Dui below and Li above. Dui is the youngest daughter, and Li is the middle daughter.(146) The nature of the yielding yin is outwardly harmonious and pleasant, and inwardly suspicious and jealous. Thus living together, their wills are different.
[e] This is why Yao "sent down (lijiang) his two daughters to Guirui" [to marry] Shun, to determine whether to abdicate to him, saying "I will test him."(147)
Li means "order," and jiang means "down." Gui is the name of a river, and rui is the north side of the river, where Shun lived. Yao ordered his two daughters to marry Shun, intending to test Shun and [eventually] give him the empire.
[f] Thus to see how one rules the empire, observe his family. To see how he rules his family, observe his personal life. When his personal life is proper, we say his mind is authentic. An authentic mind is simply one that turns away (fu) from activity that is not good.
When activity that is not good ceases externally, then a good mind is born within and there is nothing [internally or externally] that is not actualized (shi).
[g] Activity that is not good is error. When error is turned around (fu), there is no error. With no error, one is authentic.
Master Cheng said, "'No error' means being authentic."(148)
[h] Thus Wuwang (No Error) follows Fu (Return) and says, "The former kings vigorously nourished the myriad things according to the season."(149) How profound!
Wuwang follows Fu in the sequence of hexagrams. "The former kings ..." refers to the Daxiang commentary on Wuwang to clarify nourishing things according to the season. Only one who is perfectly authentic can do this, and so [Zhou] praises the profundity of the intention.
This chapter brings to light what four hexagrams say about the comprehensiveness of the sage.
 An authentic mind simply turns away from action that is not good. When activity that is not good is simply eliminated externally, then the good mind is actualized internally. Simply holding onto this mind is to preserve it.
[Zhang's note:] This section speaks of the Way of the noble person. What is inside is important; what is outside is taken lightly.
[a] The noble person takes agreement with the Way as honor, and personal peace as wealth. Therefore he is always at peace, with nothing lacking. He regards ceremonial carriages and caps as small change; he regards gold and jade as dust. The weight [of his riches] cannot be exceeded.
The principle here is easy to clarify, yet it bears repeating. It seeks for people to have the means to truly understand the importance of morality, and not be influenced by external things.
 Teacher Zhou says that the Way is the highest honor. There is not one thing that comes up to it. We see our foolish contemporaries losing control to external things, like falling into a pit of fire. I cannot bear to see them. It is for this reason that we say "not one thing." Most people's minds are an empty shell, so they appear like madmen. They are simply unaware of themselves.
[Zhang's note:] This section speaks of studying the sages, which requires one to seek out the Way and virtue. One cannot fall into mere literary expression.
[a] The Way of the Sages enters through the ear, is preserved in the mind/heart, is comprehended in one's moral behaviour, and is enacted in one's affairs and undertakings. Those who engage merely in literary expression are superficial.
The idea is the same as in the chapter above. It seeks for people to truly understand the importance of morality, and not to fall into the superficiality of literary expression.
 The literature (wen) of the ancient sages and worthies can be called magnificent. But at first, how did they have the ideas and learning to create this kind of literature? They had this reality [shi] within, so they necessarily had this literary [expression] without. It is like Heaven having qi, so there must be the light of sun, moon, and stars; or earth having form, so there must be the array of mountains, rivers, plants and trees. Since the minds of sages and worthies had this brilliant and pure reality fully replete within, its display without was clearly in order. Its glory overspread and could not be concealed. So they did not have to rely on spoken language; they wrote books, which we call literature. But they embodied the myriad affairs themselves, whether in speech or in silence. What people can see is only the literature. Now to name the greatest of their words, they are the hexagram drawings of the Yi, the recorded words of the Shu, the songs sung in the Shi, the affairs recorded in the Chuqiu, the decorum of the Li, and the rhythm of the Yue. These were all arranged as the Six Scriptures and passed down through the myriad generations. This literature is magnificent; later generations have definitely not been able to come up to it. But as for what makes it magnificent and unsurpassable, how can it not come from the self? Yet the world doesn't recognize this.
[Zhang's note:] This section speaks of the actualized Order and the Way of nature. One who has not yet achieved authenticity should value deliberation and discussion to complete the transformation.
[a] Being perfectly authentic, one acts. Acting, one changes. Changing, one transforms. Thus it is said, "Deliberate before speaking; discuss before acting. By such deliberation and discussion one can complete one's transformation."(150)
What the Zhongyong and the Great Commentary of the Yi mean is not the same.(151) But here we are speaking of them together, not distinguishing their meanings. Someone says, "'Being perfectly authentic' is the self-nature of the actualized Order. Deliberation and discussion are the process by which one authenticates it."
 "Acting" is acting toward another when stimulated. "Changing" is altering one's old customs. But if there is a flaw remaining, one's transformation will melt away without a trace.
[Zhang's note:] This section says that the Way of being a ruler lies in being centered and correct, clear and intelligent, firm and decisive. Of these three, not one can be lacking.
[a] Heaven gives birth to the myriad things in the spring and ceases in the autumn. Not to cease after things have come alive and been completed would be going too far. Therefore comes the autumn for completion. The sage models Heaven in governing and nourishing the myriad people. He regulates them with punishment. As the people flourish, their desires become active and their feelings overwhelming, and benefit and harm come into conflict. If not stopped, there would be injury and destruction and no more human relations. Therefore they receive punishment to regulate [their behavior].
This idea is roughly the same as in the eleventh chapter.
[b] Feelings are unreliable [false] and obscure; they change in a thousand ways. They can only be regulated with centrality and correctness, clarity and intelligence, firmness and decisiveness. Song [Conflict, hexagram 6] says, "It is beneficial to see the great man,"(152) for "the firm [line] has gained the central position."(153) Shihe [Biting Through, hexagram 21] says, "It is beneficial to use litigation"(154) to "clarify through activity."(155)
Centrality and correctness are the foundation; clarity and decisiveness are the function. But without clarity, decisiveness has no way of working; without decisiveness, clarity has no place to work. The two also have a temporal relationship. "Centrality" in Song is related to "correctness;" "clarify" in Shihe is related to intelligence. "Firm" in Song and "active" in Shihe mean "firmness and decisiveness."
[c] Ah! Throughout the empire, those who control punishment direct the lives of the people. In appointing them to their position, can one not be careful?
 The mind of the sage nourishes and brings [things] to life. In reality it has the same virtue as heaven and earth. Some things are contrary to principle and offensive to heaven, so in judging their importance one must decisively [apply] unchanging principle. It is like the revolution of the four seasons in heaven and earth: bitter cold for half [the year], yet the mind that nourishes and gives life is always flowing through it.
37. IMPARTIALITY(156) 公
[a] The Way of the sage is perfectly impartial. Someone said, "What does that mean?" I replied, "Heaven and Earth are perfectly impartial."
[a] The Spring and Autumn [Annals] rectifies the Kingly Way and clarifies the great models [of the past]. Confucius compiled it for the kings of later generations. The rebellious ministers and wicked sons who were put to death in the past are a means of arousing fear in those to come. It is fitting that for ten thousan generations without end, kings have sacrificed to Confucius to repay his inexhaustible virtue and achievement.
[a] Confucius was the only one whose Way and virtue were lofty and abundant, whose educational influence was unlimited, and who could truly form a trinity with Heaven and Earth and be equal to the Four Seasons.
That which has a Way as lofty as Heaven is yang. That which has virtue as abundant as Earth is yin. That which has educational influence as unlimited as the Four Seasons is the Five Phases. Confucius was the Supreme Polarity!
[Zhang's note:] This section refers to two hexagrams to clarify the idea of emphasizing stillness. This is also the comprehensiveness of the sage.
[a] "The ignorant youth (tongmeng) seeks me out,"(157) and I "correct"(158) him and "determine his course of actions,"(159) as in divination. Divination is beseeching the spirits. [To ask] a second or third time is a violation. In that case, I make no pronouncement.
This connects with the following three sections, which variously refer to the hexagram text, the Tuan commentary, and the Greater Image commentary on Meng to elucidate the meaning. Tong is a youth; meng is ignorant. "I" means the teacher. "Divination" is casting yarrow stalks to determine the auspicious and inauspicious. It says that the youthful and ignorant person comes seeking me to alleviate his ignorance, and I use the correct Way to determine his course of action. It is like divination, beseeching the spirits to resolve one's doubts; the spirits pronounce auspicious or inauspicious to determine one's course of action. Whether beseeching spirits or seeking a teacher, only once yields clarification. If the first divination yields a pronouncement, then a second or third is wrong. In that case the spirits will not pronounce auspicious or inauspicious. Likewise a teacher will not necessarily determine one's course of action.
[b] "Below the mountain issues forth a spring;"(160) still [mountain] and clear [water]. When disturbed, [the water] is mixed up; when mixed up, it is not clear.
"Beneath the mountain issues forth a spring" is from the Greater Image commentary. The mountain is still and the spring is clear; they [both] have the means to complete their unexpressed goodness, and so the course of action can reach fruition. "Disturbed" [corresponds] to the "second and third" [divinations]. "Mixed up" [corresponds to] the "violation." "Not clear" [corresponds to] "no pronouncement." Thus "disturbed," it is not still; "mixed up," it is not clear. When they are unable to preserve their unexpressed goodness, then pronouncements are insufficient to bring the course of action to fruition, and overcoming one's doubts is not as good as not announcing one's stupidity.
[c] Be cautious! This means [to follow] the "timely mean"!(161)
"Timely mean" is from the Tuan commentary text; it means that when one is being educated one can do this. (?) The first time there is a pronouncement. When violated, there is no pronouncement. When still and clear there is a decision. When disturbed and mixed up there is no decision. These both [illustrate] the timely mean.
[d] "Keep the back still,"(162) for the back is not seen. When still (jing), one can stop [at the right point]. To stop is not to act [deliberately]. To act [deliberately] is not to stop [at the right point]. This Way is profound!
This section refers to the Image commentary of the Ken hexagram and elucidates it. Gen is to stop. "The back" is the place that is not seen. "Keep the back still" is to stop in the place that is not seen. When one stops in the place that is not seen, then one is still (jing). When still, one stops and has no acting. Once there is a mind to act, then it is not the Way of stopping.
This chapter brings to light two hexagrams. Both discuss "the comprehensiveness
of the sage" and the idea of emphasizing stillness.
1. Zhou Lianxi xiansheng quanji, ch. 5. Zhou Lianxi xiansheng quanji was compiled by Zhang Boxing (1652-1725) in 1708, and was included in his collection, Zhengyi tang quanshu (Library of Zhengyi Hall, published by Zhang between 1707 and 1713). Three editions of Zhang's compilation have been used as the basis for this translation: (1) the Baibu congshu jicheng edition; (2) an unidentified reprint of a punctuated woodblock edition, with the same pagination as (1), published under the title Taijitu xiangjie (Detailed Discussion of the Supreme Polarity Diagram) (Beijing: Xuefan chuban she, 1990); and (3) the Congshu jicheng edition, entitled Zhou Lianxi ji (Taibei: Taiwan Commercial Press, 1966). In addition, for the text of the Tongshu and Zhu Xi's published commentary on it, I have also consulted Chen Keming, ed., Zhou Dunyi ji (Collection of Zhou Dunyi) (Beiing: Zhonghua shuju, 1990), which does not contain any supplementary discussions from the Zhuzi yulei (Zhu Xi's Classified Conversations) and Hui'an xiansheng Zhu wengong wenji (Zhu Xi's Collected Papers). Citations to these two works are from Zhu Jieren, Yan Zuozhi, Liu Yongxiang, eds., Zhuzi quanshu (Zhu Xi's Complete Works), 27 vols. (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chuban she, 2002).
2. See sections 10 and 23 below.
3. Yinfeng nongyue 吟風弄月. Cheng Hao (according to Zhu Xi in Yi-Luo yuan-yuan lu 1) used this phrase of Zhou Dunyi (see Er Cheng ji [Collection of the two Chengs] [Taibei: Hanjing wenhua shiye, 1983]: 59, where it is not attributed to either brother specifically), and it became a standard characterization.
4. This quote is from the postface of Zhu Xi's Jian'an edition (1169) of the Taijitu and Tongshu, which is not included in Zhang Boxing's compilation (see below, following the Tongshu).
5. Zhou Yi, Tuan commentary on hexagram 1. See Zhu Xi, Zhouyi benyi (The Original Meaning of the Scripture of Change) (1177; rpt. Taibei: Hualian, 1978), 1:3a.
6. In most cases the term "virtue" will be used to translate de. However, it should be borne in mind that the connotation is not strictly moral, but also includes the specific power that characterizes a thing (similar to the Latin virtus). Thus the "Four Virtues" of the hexagram Qian (see below) are the four essential characteristics of Qian.
7. Zhou Yi, Tuan commentary on hexagram 1 (Zhouyi benyi 1:3a).
8. Zhou Yi, Wenyan 1 (Zhouyi benyi, 1:7b).
9. Zhou Yi, Xici A.5.1 (Zhouyi benyi, 3:5a). Disregarding Zhu Xi's interpretation, a better translation of this passage might be, "The alternation of yin and yang is called the Way. To carry it out is goodness. To actualize it is human nature."
10. For this and the next sentence, cf. the previous passage.
11. Zhu's point here is that the fundamental nature of things is inherent in their transformative processes; ontology is inherent in cosmology.
12. Bracketed selection numbers are added by the translator. Not all of Zhang Boxing's selections have been translated, and not all the sources have been traced.
13. Zhuzi yulei 94:3144.
14. Zhuzi yulei 94:3144.
15. Zhuzi yulei 94:3147.
16. Wu, lit. "nonexistent."
17. You, lit. "existent."
18. Zhongyong 25. Sishu jizhu (Collected commentaries on the Four Books) (Sibu beiyao ed.), Zhongyong zhangju, 17b.
19. Paraphrasing Zhongyong 20: "He who is authentic hits the Mean without effort, apprehends without thinking, and easily complies with the Way of the Mean. This is a sage." Zhongyong zhangju, 15a.
20. 20 Analects 12:1.
21. Zhuzi yulei 94:3148.
22. Zhuzi yulei 94:3149.
23. Zhuzi yulei 94:3149.
24. This section title, cheng ji de, is parsed as a sentence by Wing-tsit Chan: "Sincerity is the subtle, incipient, activating force of virtue" (A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy: 466). However, in Zhu Xi's comments on this section in the Zhuzi yulei (see below), he consistently treats ji "incipience" as a distinct phase of mind, never subordinating it grammatically to de "virtue" or to cheng "authenticity/sincerity." I have therefore translated the title in accordance with Zhu Xi's treatment, parsing it as three distinct terms -- the topics of the first three lines of the section -- with no closer grammatical connection. See also the note to [b] below.
25. An alternative translation would be "[In authenticity there is] incipient good and evil." Again, I am following Zhu Xi's interpretation. In his comments (below), he consistently treats ji (incipience) as an independent subject, never an adjective, and never connecting it grammatically with the cheng (authenticity) of the previous clause.
26. Zhuzi yulei 94:3149.
27. Xici A.10.4. This is discussed further in chapter 4 below.
28. Zhuzi yulei 94:3149. In other words, the distinction between good and evil depends on the intentionality of an action. But there is a more general sense in which one can say that spontaneous, authentic activity is by nature (or by definition) good.
29. Zhongyong 1. What Zhu means here is that authenticity is simply the effortless expression of one's inborn nature, in harmony with the still center of one's being.
30. Mencius 4A.2.
31. Zhuzi yulei 94:3149.
32. Zhuzi yulei 94:3150. Referring to a general of the state of Qi during the Warring States period. In 285-285 BCE he saved the royal house of Qi by driving back an invasion by the state of Yan. See Sima Qian, Shiji (Historical Records), ch. 82.
33. Yang Daofu studied with Zhu Xi beginning around 1189. See Chan Wing-tsit, Zhuzi menren (Zhu Xi's Disciples) (Taibei: Xuesheng, 1982), pp. 272-273.
34. Zhongyong 1 (trans. Chan, Source Book: 98, slightly modified). The worthy is Zisi, Confucius' grandson, the reputed author of the text. The Sage is presumably Confucius, since Zhu Xi believed that the text contained Confucius' ideas and sayings as transmitted by Zisi.
35. Zhuzi yulei 94:3150.
36. The first line is from Zhongyong 1. "Mind/heart is unitary" is not in the Zhongyong.
37. Zhuzi yulei 94:3150.
38. Cai Yuanding (1135-1198), Zhu's disciple and occasional collaborator (e.g. on the Yixue qimeng [Introduction to the Study of the Yi]).
39. Zhuzi yulei 94:3151. The statement that "human nature cannot be inactive" alludes to a complex discussion of good and evil in Zhu's "Treatise on Cheng Hao's Discourse on the Nature" (Mingdao lun xing shuo, in Zhu wengong wenji [Sibu beiyao ed.] 67:16b-18a; cf. Chan, Source Book, pp. 597-600). Zhu agrees with Cheng Hao's claim that "Good and evil in the world are both the Principle of Nature [what I am translating here as "natural Order"]. What is called evil is not original evil. It becomes evil only because of deviation from the mean" (Chan: 598). This is what Zhu means by action being "appropriate" to its circumstances. When action is appropriate, or accords with the Mean, it is ordered, or consonant with the natural Order.
40. Hu Hong (1100-1155), Zhi yan (On Understanding Words) (Sibu beiyao ed.), 1:5b.
41. "Branches" (fenpai), "legitimate" (zong) and "illegitimate" (nie) are family lineage terms.
42. Henan Chengshi yishu (Taibei: Shangwu, 1978), v.1: 11.
43. This rather lengthy "question," including the diagrams, is taken from a letter of Zhao Zhidao to Zhu Xi. The letter and Zhu's annotations on it are found in Hui'an xiansheng Zhu wengong wenji 59:2863. For Zhao Zhidao see Chan Wing-tsit, Zhuzi menren (Zhu Xi's Disciples) (Taibei: Xuesheng shuju, 1982): 293.
44. Zhuzi yulei 94:3151.
45. Zhuzi yulei 94:3152.
46. Zhuzi yulei 94:3152.
47. The reason for the question is that, according to Mencian theory, human nature is possessed equally by all.
48. Zhuzi yulei 94:3153. Cf. Zhu Xi's preface to this commentary, where he says, "No one knows where his teaching tradition came from." For Lu Shen (1012-1017), see http://www.yuhang.gov.cn/class/class_22/articles/78840.html
49. Zhuzi yulei 94:3153.
50. [Zhang's note:] In sections 3, 4, 9, 11, and 16.
51. Zheng meng (Correcting youthful ignorance), in Zhu Xi, comp., Zhangzi quanshu (Zhang Zai's complete works, Sibu beiyao ed.), 2:5b.
52. Zhuzi yulei 94:3153-54. The last sentence is from Tongshu 4.
53. [Zhang's note:] Quoted from the "Response to Huang Zhiqing's 'Commentary on the Supreme Polarity Book.'" [Trans.: I could not find this is Zhu Xi's collected papers (Hui-an xiansheng Zhu wengong wenji).]
54. Zhou Yi, Xici A.10.4 (Zhouyi benyi, 3:12b).
56. Zhou Yi, Xici A.10.6 (Zhouyi benyi 3:13a).
57. Zhuzi yulei 94:3154.
58. Zhuzi yulei 94:3154.
59. Zhuzi yulei 94:3154.
60. Zhuzi yulei 94:3154.
61. Zhuzi yulei 94:3154.
62. Quoting Zhongyong 24, which discusses divination and concludes, "One with perfect authenticity is like a spirit." In his discussions of Yijing divination, Zhu Xi argues that a sage, characterized by perfect authenticity and "spiritual clarity" (shenming), does not need to make use of divination to determine a course of action. See Kidder Smith, Jr., Peter K. Bol, Joseph A. Adler, and Don J. Wyatt, Sung Dynasty Uses of the I Ching (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990): 193-94. Zhuzi yulei 94:3155.
63. [Original note:] [Chen] Chun's record says, "It originates in authenticity; the strength comes forth in incipience."
64. [Chen] Chun's record adds: "between the two" [Zhang's note].
65. Zhuzi yulei 94:3155.
66. I.e., the sentence is contained in the Taijiitu shuo, in a note added by Zhou.
67. "Firm" (gang) and "yielding" (rou) refer to the solid (yang) and broken (yin) lines, respectively, of the Yijing. In Shao Yong's "Diagram Developing the Yi for Governing the World" (Jingshi yanyi tu), the firm and yielding develop from stillness, while yin and yang develop from activity. See Shao Yong, Huangji jingshi shu (Supreme principles governing the world), in Li Guangdi, comp., Xingli jingyi (Essential meanings of the school of nature and principle) (Sibu beiyao ed.), 3:1a. As will become evident in Zhu Xi's comment on the next passage, however, he treats them here as independent variables: yin and yang can each be either firm or yielding.
68. Zhu Xi is referring to the physical nature (qizhi zhi xing) as opposed to the original (moral) nature (benxing). This is a distinction Zhu adopted from Zhang Zai and Cheng Yi, not Zhou Dunyi.
69. Quoting Zhongyong 1 (Zhongyong zhangju 2a).
71. Cf. Shujing, "Da Yu mo," trans. James Legge, The Chinese Classics, 2nd ed. (1893; rpt. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1960), v. 3: 61-62. Zhu Xi is referring here to the all-important distinction in the Zhongyong between the unexpressed (weifa) mind and the already-expressed (yifa) mind. Zhong (equilibrium) is the condition before the expression of emotions, while he (harmony) is their proper expression: going far enough and not too far.
72. Mencius 5A.7 (Sishu jizhu ed. 5:9b), quoting Yi Yin; see section 10 below.
73. "In Change there is the Supreme Polarity, which generates the Two Modes. The Two Modes generate the Four Images, and the Four Images generate the Eight Trigrams" (Zhou Yi, Xici A.11.5 [Zhouyi benyi 3:14b]). In identifying the firm and yielding as the Two Modes Zhu is speaking in the mode of correlative cosmology. In his Yixue qimeng (Introduction to the study of the Yi) the Two Modes are yin and yang (see Li Guangdi, comp., Zhouyi zhezhong [The Zhouyi judged evenly] [Taibei: Zhen Shan Mei, 1971]: 1228); and in the aforementioned "Diagram Developing the Yi for Governing the World," by Shao Yong, they are activity and stillness.
75. Zhuzi yulei 94:3156.
76. Zhuzi yulei 94:3156.
77. Sishu jizhu, Lunyu 3:15a. Actually it is in the Zhongyong zhangju (ibid., 2a) that Zhu defines zhong as impartial.
78. Zhuzi yulei 94:3157.
79. Hongfan chapter of the Shujing. See Legge, trans., The Chinese Classics, v. 3: 327.
80. Wusi er wu butong. This is undoubtedly a pun on Laozi 37,"No doing and yet nothing undone" (wuwei er wu buwei).
81. Xici B.5.11 (Zhouyi benyi 3:22b).
83. Zhuzi yulei 94:3157.
84. Mencius 1B.3, 5. In all three passages Mencius uses historical examples to illustrate the principle that the ruler should allow his subjects to enjoy the same things he enjoys.
85. The point is that by "penetrating" specific historical examples Mencius induced a general principle connecting them all with King Xuan's moral dilemma. Zhuzi yulei 94:3158.
86. Analects 6:2.
87. Analects 6:5.
88. Yi Yin was a minister to Tang, founder of the Shang dynasty, and is honored in the Confucian tradition for having banished Tang's incompetent grandson (see Mencius 7A.31 and D.C. Lau, "Ancient History as Understood by Mencius," in D. C. Lau, trans., Mencius (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970), appendix 4. Yan Yuan (Yan Hui) was Confucius' favorite disciple. Cf. section 23.
89. For Dou Congzhou see Chan, Zhuzi menren, 360-361.
90. Mencius 5A.7 (Sishu jizhu 5:9a), trans. D. C. Lau.
91. Zhuzi yulei 94:3159.
92. Quoting Zhongyong 25; see above, Zhu's comment on section 2d. "Actualization" here, of course, means self-actualization. It should be noted that the words "actualization" (shi) and "fame/name" (ming) used throughout this section and the commentaries were prominent terms in the later Mohist canon and in the ancient "school of names" (mingjia), where they referred to the relationship between things or reality and the words used to describe it. See A.C. Graham, Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China (LaSalle: Open Court, 1989), and A.C. Graham, Later Mohist Logic, Ethics and Science (Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1978). Here, of course, they have more distinctively Confucian meanings.
93. Cheng Yi, in Henan Chengshi yishu, ch. 18 (Er Cheng ji: 219).
94. Attributed to Confucius in Sima Qian, Shiji (Historical records) (rpt. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1996), ch. 17:1943.
95. Cheng Hao, in Henan Chengshi yishu, ch. 11 (Er Cheng ji: 129).
96. The text appears fragmentary here, lacking specific indication of dialogue.
97. This is based on the numerology of the Hetu (River Chart), as explained by Zhu in the Yixue qimeng (Introduction to the Study of the Yi). Specifically (with reference to the numbers of the Chart): "Heaven generates water from the one, and earth completes it with the six. Earth generates fire from the two, and Heaven completes it with the seven." [Yixue qimeng , section 1, in Li Guangdi, comp., Zhouyi zhezhong (The Yijing Judged Evenly) (1715; rpt. Taibei: Zhen shan mei, 1971): 1212.] Odd numbers are traditionally considered yang, and even numbers are yin.
98. I.e. spirit is the interpenetrating characteristic of the two bipolar modes of qi; yin and yang are not mutually exclusive opposites.
99. Huang Gan (1152-1221) was one of Zhu Xi's leading pupils and his son-in-law.
100. Zhuzi yulei 94:3160.
101. Zhuzi yulei 94:3161.
102. I.e., although Heaven is primarily associated with activity and Earth with stillness, they both also manifest the opposite function.
103. C.f. above, spirit is that which cannot be categorized into yin or yang.
104. See Legge, trans., The Chinese Classics, v. 3: 320-344.
105. Paraphrasing Lao Tzu 68.
106. The rest of this chapter of Zhou's text is given in Wing-tsit Chan's translation (Source Book: 472-473), substituting "ritual" for "ceremonies."
107. In what is apparently an oversight, Chan here has omitted the word "ritual" [or "ceremonies"]. Zhu Xi's commentary, which Chan generally follows, makes no sense without it.
108. The wording of this quote differs slightly from that of the text, although the meaning is the same.
109. Just as the ruler's deviations from the Mean affect the rest of society.
110. Hu Yuan (993-1059), Cheng Yi's teacher.
111. Zhuzi yulei 94:3163.
112. Chan's translation of yi as "(concentration on) one thing" (Source Book: 473) is probably closer to what Zhou actually meant, but the present translation reflects Zhu Xi's interpretation.
113. Xici A.6.2: "The stillness of Qian is focused; it's activity is direct." (Zhouyi benyi, 3:6b.)
114. Zhu comes very close here to Lu Xiangshan's position regarding the relationship of mind and Order (li). Zhu's claim that the ultimate order of Heaven-and-Earth is not external to the mind depends on his other proposition that the human mind (renxin) and the moral mind (daoxin) are not two minds, they are two aspects or dimensions of the unitary mind. This is a distinction that Lu does not make.
115. Zhu Xi claims that what Zhou Dunyi meant here by "having no desire" is the same as what Cheng Yi meant by jing or reverent composure, thus redefining in Confucian terms a proposition with obvious Buddhist resonances. Both terms were defined in terms of unity or unification. This, for Zhu, is neither concentration on one thing to the exclusion of all else, nor concentration on unity and neglect of diversity. Although Zhu Xi, like the Buddhists, acknowledged the potential for evil (or suffering) in human desire, he taught that desires should be not eliminated but selectively cultivated and trained to accord with the Way. Only selfish desires (siyu) should be eliminated. The basic Buddhist approach, as Zhu Xi understood it, was to extinguish desire or "thirst" (tanha).
116. Quoting Xici B.5.3. Zhu defines "approaching the spiritual" as "the unknowability of the subtle, mysterious person" (Zhuzi yulei 76:2586).
117. Quoting Xici B.5.3. Zhuzi yulei 94:3164.
118. Cf. the nearly identical statement by one of the Chengs: "When there is mastery in [the mind's] equilibrium, then it is full (solid, shi). When it is full, then external worries cannot enter" (Henan Chengshi yishu, ch. 1, in Er Cheng ji: 8).
119. Zhuzi yulei 94:3165.
120. Zhou Lianxi xiansheng quanji, ch. 6.
121. Zhu here seems to be emphasizing that these are three separate topics, although the last sentence seems to be inconsistent with the idea (given in the Taijitu shuo) that taiji is inherent in everything.
122. Yen Yuan, or Yen Hui, was Confucius' favorite disciple. He was known for his dedication to learning and self-cultivation despite personal poverty. Cheng Yi's famous "Essay on What Yanzi Loved to Learn" (Henan Chengshi wenji, ch. 8, in Er Cheng ji: 577) may have been influenced by Zhou Dunyi's praise of Yanzi, although it is based more directly on Analects 6:2, where Confucius says that of all his students only Yen Hui "loved to learn" (hao xue). According to Zhu Xi, Cheng's essay was written when he was eighteen, or shortly after the Cheng brothers studied with Zhou (Zhuzi yulei 93:3107 / 93:2359). Yao Mingda, a 20th century biographer of Cheng Yi, says that Cheng was only fourteen when he wrote it (citation in Chan, Source Book: 547 n.19), but there are other similarities with Zhou's ideas in the essay that suggest the later date.
123. Quoted by Zhu Xi in his commentary on Analects 6:9, in Sishu jizhu, Lunyu 3:11b. The passage is from Henan Chengshi yishu, ch. 2A (Er Cheng ji: 16).
124. According to Mencius (7B.25), the capacity to "transform" [hua) others is the hallmark of the sage. "Equalizing" (qi) others, or seeing all things as equal, is a characteristic of a Daoist sage in the tradition of Zhuangzi (see Zhuangzi, chapter 2). Given Zhou Dunyi's Daoist connections, this is not an implausible thing for him to say, although in his comment it seems to trouble Zhu Xi. He also addresses it in Supplementary passage 15 (not included here).
125. Mencius 7B.25.
126. Source ??
127. I.e., the passage ends in the middle of a sentence. The translation here includes part of the next passage, following Zhu Xi's suggestion.
128. This refers to Chen Dong (1086-1127), who was executed by the first emperor of the Southern Song, Gaozong.
129. Zhuzi yulei 94:3168.
130. Legge, trans., The Chinese Classics, vol. 5: 512, 517.
131. Cf. the nearly identical statement by a Cheng disciple, Bochun, in Er Cheng yishu, 2A (Er Cheng ji: 39).
132. Raymond Dawson, trans., The Analects (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1993): 24.
133. Trans. Dawson, op. cit.: 71-72. In Zhu Xi's edition this passage is 17:19.
134. While the "comprehensiveness of the Sage" in the previous chapter refers to Confucius, here the Sage is Fuxi, who first drew the hexagrams of the Yi.
135. Zhuzi yulei 94:3169.
136. These are yuan (originating), heng (penetrating), li (carrying out), and zhen (being correct) in the hexagram text of Qian.
137. Zhuzi yulei 94:3170.
138. This sentence is composed of three fragments from the texts of Qian (Heaven): Yao (Line text), 3rd line; Daxiang zhuan (Greater Image Commentary); and Wenyan (Words on the Text), 2nd line. Zhouyi benyi, 1:2a, 1:4a, 1:5b.
139. From Daxiang commentary to Sun (Decrease), (Zhouyi benyi 2:17a).
140. Paraphrase of Daxiang commentary to Yi (Increase) (Zhouyi benyi 2:18b).
141. This would change the reading only slightly, and not the meaning ("nothing is better" instead of "this is the best"). There is probably some corruption in this and the following sentence.
142. Xici B.1 (Zhouyi benyi 3:17a). These are four of the basic oracular pronouncements that form the core of the original text of the Yi.
143. Zhuzi yulei 94:3171.
144. Cf. the Daxue (Great Learning): "From the Son of Heaven to the common person, in each case self-cultivation is the foundation." The core text of the Daxue, particularly the "eight steps," is alluded to throughout this chapter, including the commentary.
145. Tuan commentary to Kui (Opposition) (Zhouyi benyi 2:12a).
146. The Eight Trigrams symbolize a family: father, mother, three sons and three daughters.
147. Shujing (Book of Documents), "Yaodian" (Canon of Yao). See Legge, trans., The Chinese Classics, vol. 3, pp. 26-27.
148. Yichuan Yizhuan (Cheng Yi's commentary on the Yi), in Er Cheng ji: 822. The line is actually "'No error' is being perfectly authentic."
149. Daxiang commentary to Wuwang (No Error) (Zhouyi benyi 1:50a).
150. Zhouyi, Xici A.8 (Zhouyi benyi 3:7b).
151. It is unclear whether Zhu is referring to the term "being perfectly authentic" or to the title of the section. "Being perfectly authentic" (zhi cheng) occurs six times in the Zhongyong (chs. 22, 23, 24 twice, 26, and 32), but not all in the Xici. In fact the word cheng by itself only occurs twice in the Yi, both times in the Wenyan. And the term "deliberation and discussion" (ni yi) occurs once in the Xici (quoted here), but not all in the Zhongyong (nor does ni by itself).
152. Zhou Yi, hexagram text of Song (Zhouyi benyi 1:19b).
153. Zhou Yi, Tuan commentary to Song (Zhouyi benyi 1:20a).
154. Zhou Yi, hexagram text of Shihe (Zhouyi benyi 1:43b).
155. Zhou Yi, Tuan commentary on Shihe (Zhouyi benyi 1:44a).
156. Chapters 37-39 lack notes by Zhang Boxing.
157. Hexagram text of Meng (Zhouyi benyi 1:15b).
158. Tuan commentary on Meng (Zhouyi benyi 1:16a).
159. Daxiang commentary on Meng (Zhouyi benyi 1:16b).
161. Tuan commentary on Meng (Zhouyi benyi 1:16a).
162. Hexagram text of Gen (Zhouyi benyi 2:34b).