• Aikman, David. Jesus in Beijing: How Christianity is Transforming China and Changing the Global Balance of Power. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Pub., 2003.
  • Bays, Daniel H., ed., Christianity in China: From the Eighteenth Century to the Present. Stanford University Press, 1996. [20 articles]
  • ______ . A New History of Christianity in China. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
  • Chao, Paul K., ed. Chinese Culture and Christianity. Lanham, Md: University Press of America, 2006.
  • Crouch, Archie. Christianity in China: A Scholars Guide to Resources in the Libraries and Archives of the United States. M.E. Sharpe, 1989. 
  • Gernet, Jacques. China and the Christian Impact, trans. Janet Lloyd. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1985 [1982].
  • Hucker, Charles O. Imperial China. Stanford Univ. Press, 1975.
  • Journal of the History of Christianity in Modern China (published by History Department of Hong Kong Baptist University, beginning 1998 or 1999)
  • Kindopp, Jason and Carol Lee Hamrin, eds. God and Caesar in China: Policy Implications of Church‑State Tensions. Washington DC : Brookings Institution Press, 2004. [Review]
  • Kwok Pui‑lan. Chinese Women and Christianity, 1860‑1927. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992.
  • Lee, Joseph Tse‑Hei. The Bible and the Gun: Christianity in South China, 1860‑1900. NY: Routledge, 2003. [Review]
  • Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm [1646-1716]. Discourse on the Natural Theology of the Chinese. Trans. Henry Rosemont, Jr. and Daniel J. Cook. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1977.
  • ______ . Writings on China. Trans. Daniel J. Cook and Henry Rosemont, Jr. Chicago: Open Court, 1994.
  • Lutz, Jessie G. and Rolland Ray Lutz. Hakka Chinese Confront Protestant Christianity, 1850‑1900: With the Autobiographies of Eight Hakka Christians, and Commentary. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1998.
  • Madsen, Richard. China's Catholics: Tragedy and Hope in an Emerging Civil Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
  • Malek, Roman, ed. The Chinese Face of Jesus Christ, 2 vols. (of 5 planned). Sankt Augustin, Germany: Institut Monumenta Serica and China‑Zentrum, 2002-03. [Review]
  • Morgan, Tim. "The Two Churches of China," Christianity Today, July 1998. 
  • Mungello, David E. The Spirit and the Flesh in Shandong, 1650‑1785. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001.
  • ______ . The Great Encounter of China and the West, 1500‑1800. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.
  • ______ . Leibniz and Confucianism:  The Search for Accord. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1977.
  • Reinders, Eric. Borrowed Gods and Foreign Bodies: Christian Missionaries Imagine Chinese Religion. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.
  • Shinn, Roger L.  "Glimpses of Chinese Christianity." Christianity and Crisis,  v. 47 (June 8 '87) p. 214‑17
  • Smith, D. Howard. Chinese Religions. NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1968. Pp.150-160.
  • Standaert, Nicolas, ed. Handbook of Christianity in China: 635 ‑ 1800 (Handbook of Oriental Studies/Handbuch Der Orientalistik ‑ Part 4: China, 15). Leiden: Brill, 2001. 
  • ______ . The Interweaving of Rituals: Funerals in the Cultural Exchange Between China and Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2008.
  • Sweeten, Alan Richard. Christianity in Rural China: Conflict and Accommodation in Jiangxi Province, 1860‑1900. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 2001. 
  • Tiedemann, R. G., ed.  Handbook of Christianity in China, volume II: 1800‑Present. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2000.
  • Tang, Edmond and Jean-Paul Wiest, eds. The Catholic Church in Modern China: Perspectives. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1993.
  • Ting, Bishop K.H. No Longer Strangers: Selected Writings of K. H. Ting. New York: Orbis Books, 1989.
  • Uhalley, Stephen, Jr. and Xiaoxin Wu, eds. China and Christianity: Burdened Past, Hopeful Future. Armonk, N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe, 2001.
  • Wang, Dong, ed., Christianity as an Issue in the History of U.S.-China Relations. Journal of American-East Asian Relations, vol. 13 (2004-2006):
    • Daniel H. Bays, "Study of the History of Christianity in U.S.-China Relations: A New Departure?"
    • Dong Wang, "Introduction to Christianity in China as an Issue in the History of U.S.-China Relations"
    • Yihua Xu, "Union Theological Seminary and the Christian Church in China"
    • Arthur Lewis Rosenbaum, " Christianity, Academics, and National Salvation in China: Yenching University, 1924-1949"
    • Charles A. Keller, "The Christian Student Movement, YMCAs, and Transnationalism in Republican China"
    • Dong Wang, "Portraying Chinese Christianity: The American Press and U.S.-China Relations since the 1920s"
    • Timothy Tseng, " Protestantism in Twentieth-Century Chinese America: The Impact of Transnationalism on the Chinese Diaspora"
    • Ian Welch, "'Our Neighbors but Not Our Countrymen': Christianity and the Chinese in Nineteenth-Century Victoria (Australia) and California"
  • Wang, Peter Chen-main, ed. Contextualization of Christianity in China: An Evaluation in Modern Perspective. Nettetal: Steyler Verlag, 2007.
  • Wickeri, Philip. Seeking the Common Ground: Protestant Christianity, the Three‑Self Movement, and China's United Front. New York: Orbis Books, 1988. 
  • Wong, Timothy Man‑kong. "The Rendering of God in Chinese by the Chinese: Chinese Responses to the Term Question in the Wanguo Gongbao." In Michael Lackner & Natascha Vittinghoff, eds., Mapping Meanings: The Field of New Learning in Late Qing China. Leiden: Brill, 2004. Pp. 589-614.
  • ______ . "On the Limits of Biculturality in Hong Kong: Protestantism as the Case Study," Fides et Historia: Journal of the Conference on Faith and History , 35:1 (2003): 9-25.
  • Yu, David C., comp. Religion in Postwar China: A Critical Analysis and Annotated Bibliography. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.


  • Baumer, Christoph. The Church of the East: An Illustrated History of Assyrian Christianity. London: I.B. Tauris, 2006.
  • Bentley, Jerry H. Old World Encounters: Cross‑cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre‑Modern Times. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
  • Chiu, Peter C.H. An Historical Study of Nestorian Christianity in the T'ang dynasty between A.D. 636 - 845. Ph.D. diss., Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1987.
  • Malek, Roman, ed. Jingjiao: The Church of the East in China and Central Asia. Nettetal: Steyler Verlag, 2007. (Review)
  • Moffett, Samuel Hugh. A History of Christianity in Asia, 2 vols. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1992.
  • Tang, Li. A Study of the History of Nestorian Christianity in China and its Literature in Chinese: Together with a New English Translation of the Dunhuang Nestorian Documents, 2nd rev. ed. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2004.


  • Arnold, Lauren. Princely Gifts and Papal Treasures: The Franciscan Mission to China and its Influence on the Art of the West, 1250 - 1350. San Francisco: Desiderata Press, 1999.
  • Brockey, Liam Matthew. Journey to the East: The Jesuit Mission to China, 1579-1724. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007.
  • Fontana, Michela. Matteo Ricci: A Jesuit in the Ming Court. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2011.
  • Hsia, R. Po-chia. A Jesuit in the Forbidden City: Matteo Ricci, 1552-1610. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Riccci, Matteo. China in the Sixteenth Century:  The Journals of Matthew Ricci, 1583-1610. Trans. Louis J. Gallagher (New York, 1953).
  • Rowbotham, Arnold H. Missionary and Mandarin:  The Jesuits at the Court of China. (Berkeley, 1942; rpt. NY, 1966).
  • Rule, Paul A. K'ung-tzu or Confucius? The Jesuit Interpretation of Confucianism. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1986.
  • Spence, Jonathan. The Memory Palace of Matteo Ricci. New York: Penguin Books, 1985.
  • Zhang Xiping, Following the Steps of Matteo Ricci to China. Trans. Ding Deshu and Ye Jinping. Beijing: China Intercontinental Press, 2006. [Not exactly a scholarly book (e.g. no notes of any kind), and an absolutely terrible translation, but seems to be well-researched.]


Primary Sources

  • Abeel, David. Journal of a Residence in China and the Neighboring Countries. New York:  Leavitt, Lord, and Co., 1834
  • The Edinburgh Review. Vol. CXXI. Art. VII. New York: Leonard, Scott, and Co., Jan & April, 1865.
  • Graves, Reverend R.H. Forty Years in China. 1895; rpt. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, Inc., 1972.
  • Huc, M. A Journey Through the Chinese Empire. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1855.
  • Medhurst, W.H. China: Its State and Progress. 1838; rpt. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, Inc., 1973.
  • The Quarterly Review. Vol. XCIV. Art. V. London: John Murray, 1854.
  • Stevens, Reverend George B. The Life, Letters, and Journals of the Rev. and Hon. Peter Parker, M.D. 1896; rpt. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, Inc., 1972.

Secondary Sources

  • Carlson, Ellsworth C. The Foochow Missionaries. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974.
  • Cohen, Paul A. China and Christianity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1963.
  • Fairbank, John K., ed. The Missionary Enterprise in China and America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974.
  • Laamann, Lars P. Christian Heretics in Late Imperial China: Christian Inculturation and State Control, 1720-1850. London: Routledge, 2006.
  • Latourette, Kenneth Scott.  A History of Christian Missions in ChinaNY: The MacMillan Co., 1929.
  • Latourette, Kenneth Scott. A History of the Expansion of Christianity. Vol. VI: The Great Century in Northern Africa and Asia. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1944.
  • Liu, Kwang-Ching, ed. American Missionaries in China: Papers from Harvard Seminars  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966.
  • Rubinstein, Murray A. The Protestant Community on Modern Taiwan: Mission, Seminary, and Church. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1991.
  • Rubinstein, Murray A. The Origins of the Anglo-American Missionary Enterprise in China, 1807-1840. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1996.
  • Scherer, James A. Missionary, Go Home! Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1964.
  • Varg, Paul A. Missionaries, Chinese, and Diplomats. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1958.
  • Twitchett, Dennis and John K. Fairbank, eds. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 10  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.
  • Timothy Man‑kong Wong, "Protestant Missionaries' Images of Chinese Buddhism: A Preliminary Study of the Buddhist Writings of Joseph Edkins, Ernest John Eitel, and James Legge," The HKBU Journal of Historical Studies, 1 (1999): 183-204.

  Edit date:  1/29/14