The Riddles of the Exeter Book

A Current Bibliography

This list of work on the Riddles attempts to be comprehensive after 1977, the publication of Craig Williamson's The Old English Riddles of the Exeter Book, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. The Bibliography in that volume is adequate for anyone undertaking to read "everything" relevant to the Riddles. When Craig Williams published A Feast of Creatures: Anglo Saxon Riddle Songs (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982) he included two helpful selective bibliographies, one for the Riddles of the Exeter Book another for riddles in general. There is a need for convenient and soundly selective lists of special studies of the Riddles of the Exeter book and the special interests relevant to them as well as to the general "theory" of "riddling" and to its relationship to the poetics of lyric poems.

The list below has been drawn from the MLA Bibliography and checked against the usual annual reviews of work, YWES, Anglo-Saxon England, The Old-English Newsletter, and ABELL. Probably because of problems with subject headings or with search devices, the on-line MLA bibliography appears to be unreliable. For example, two striking omissions are both of Craig Williamson's books. In February, 2004, it became possible to fill out the list of publications for 2000 and 2001 and to add a number of items for earlier years, back as far as 1994. Note that there is nothing for 2003 and that the year 2002 is probably under half of what might be expected. Now, February 15, the listing is the most comprehensive list available. But please note: in the past year we have discovered a dozen items not included in the bibliographies searched. Moreover, the lag time for reporting current work can be as long as two years. Notices of errors and omissions will be greatly appreciated.

It is readily apparent that the work has been scattered among a number people, published in a variety of places, and is often difficult to lay hands on. In the next year we will explore the prospects of making some of this available on-line. From the one hundred thirty items listed below, we hope to select a gathering under the rubric "A Companion to the Riddles of the Exeter Book." Ideally we would like to have an annotated bibliography with links to full texts of the most useful work Briefly annotated recommendations for this department are eagerly solicited.

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To facilitate identification of locations of publication, the list is preceded by a list of special collections and annuals. There are two additional listings available. Click on authors for an alphabetical list of authors and the years of appearance. Click on journals for an alphabetical list of the journals in which more than one essay has appeared.

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I. Special Collections and and Annuals.

Baker, Peter S. , Howe, Nicholas (eds.), Words and Works: Studies in Medieval English Language and Literature in Honour of Fred C. Robinson. Toronto: U of Toronto P 1998

Foley, John Miles, Womack, J. Chris, Womack, Whitney A. (eds.)De Gustibus: Essays for Alain Renoir, New York: Garland. 1992. Pages 110-50

Hall, Joan H., Doane, Nick, Ringler, Dick (eds.), Old English and New: Studies in Language and Linguistics in Honor of Frederic G. Cassidy, New York: Garland. 1992.

Harwood, Britton J.,Overing, Gillian R. (eds.), Class and Gender in Early English Literature: Intersections, Bloomington: Indiana UP. 1994.

Nicholson, Lewis E., Frese, Dolores Warwick, and Gerber, John C. (eds.), .Anglo-Saxon Poetry: Essays in Appreciation for John C. McGalliard, Notre Dame: U of Notre Dame P., 1975.

Toswell, M. J. (ed.)Prosody and Poetics in the Early Middle Ages: Essays in Honour of C. B. Hieatt, Toronto, ON. U of Toronto P. 1995.

Wilcox, Jonathan (ed.), Humour in Anglo-Saxon Literature, D.S. Brewer (Cambridge), 2000.

In Geardagum: Essays on Old and Middle English Language and Literature. Denver: Society for New Language Study, 1974 ff. Loren Gruber and Dean Loganbill, eds.

Anglo-Saxon England. 1972 ff. Peter Clemoes,(ed.)

II. A Chronological List of Work Relating to the Riddles of the Exeter Book.

Bitterli, Dieter, "Exeter Book Riddle 15: Some Points for the Porcupine" Anglia. 120:4 (2002), pp. 461-87.

Elain K. Musgrave, "Cithara as the Solution to Riddle 31 of the Exeter Book," Pacific Coast Philology 37 (2002) pp.69-84.

Bayless, Martha, "Alcuin's Disputation Pippini and the Early Medieval Riddle Tradition," in History and Politics in Late Antiquity and the Early Middles Ages. Ed. Guy Halsall. Cambridge, 2002



Green, Eugene, "Semiotics of Compunds in Old English Riddles," in New Insights in Germanic Linguistics, II. Ed. Gerald F. Carr. New York, Peter Lang. 2001.

Kirby, Ian J., "The Exeter Book, Riddle 60." Notes and Queries 48 (246):3. 2001 Sept, pp. 219-20.

Risden, Edward L., "Some Thematic Implications of Humor in Anglo-Saxon Poetry," In Geardagum 22, pp. 77-90.

Salvador, Mercedes, "A Case of Editorial Hypercorrection in Exeter Riddle 35 (8b)." ANQ 14:3 2001, pp 5-11.

Salvador, Mercedes, "The Evening Singer of Riddle 8 (K-D), SELIM (2001 for 1999) pp. 57-68.

Stanley, Eric Gerald, "Playing upon Words," NM 102: pp. 339-56.

Tiffany, Daniel, "Lyric Substance: On Riddles, Materialism, and Poetic Obscurity," Critical Inquiry 28:1 (2001) pp. 72-98.

Zehnder, Ursula, "A Metrical Comparison of Beowulf and the Old English Riddles of the Exeter Book." Authors, Heroes, and Lovers, Thomas Honegger, ed. pp. 27-46.

DiNapoli, Robert, "In the Kingdom of the Blind, the One-Eyed Man Is a Seller of Garlic: Depth-Perception and the Poet's Perspective in the Exeter Book Riddles." English Studies 81:5 2000, pp 422-55

Hoffman, David, and Sharon Hoffman, "Enigma, Paradox, Parable," Parabola, 25:2 (2000) pp.14-21.

Igarashi, Michelle Michie Yoshimori" A Contextual Study of the 'Exeter Book' Riddles."Dissertation Abstracts International:, Volume 60:8, 2000 Feb, p 2914.

Nelson, Marie, "Tolkien's 'Orthanc' and Exeter Book Riddle 83: An Ecological Connection." Germanic Notes and Reviews 31:1 2000 Spring, pp.18-24.

Rulon-Miller, Nina, "Sexual Humor and Fettered Desire in Exeter Book Riddle 12." Humour in Anglo-Saxon Literature, ed. Wilcox, pages 99-126.

Smith, D. K., "Humor in Hiding: Laughter between the Sheets in the Exeter Book Riddles." Humour in Anglo-Saxon Literature, ed. Wilcox, pages 79-98.

Sorrell, Paul, "Word Alchemy: A Window on Anglo-Saxon Culture." Parabola: Myth, Tradition, and the Search for Meaning. 25:2 (2000) pp. 62-68.

Tanke, John, "The Bachelor-Warrior Hero of Exeter Book Riddle 20," Philological Quarterly 79:4 (2000) pp. 409-27

Zehnder, Ursula, "Hypermetrical Verse Patterns in the Riddles of the Exeter Book." Notes and Queries 47 (245):4 2000 Dec, pp.405-09

Cook, Eleanor, " Riddles of Procreation," Connotations 8:3 (1998-1999) pp.269-92.
Hill, David, "Riddle 8: a Problem of Identification or a Problem of Translation." Med. Life 11, 22-3.

Revard, Carter, "Beads, Wampum, Money, Words -- and Old English Riddles." Amer. Indian Culture and Research Jnl 23.1. Pages 177-89.

Scattergood, John, "Eating the Book: Riddle 47 and Memory." Text and Gloss ed. Conrad O'Briain , pages 119-127.

Williams, Edith Whitehurst,"Hwa mec raere? ... Hwa mec staedthe? The Quest for Certainty in the Old English Storm Riddle."Medieval Perspectives: Volume 14, 1999. Pages 255-72

Donoghue, Daniel, "An Anser for Exeter Book Riddle 74."Words and Works: 1998. Pages 45-58

Frank, Roberta, "When Lexicography Met the Exeter Book."Words and Works: 1998. Pages 207-22.

Harbus, Antonina, "Exeter Book Riddle 39 Reconsidered." Studia Neophilologica:Volume 70: 2. 1998. Pages 139-48.

Hough, Carole, "Place-Names and the Provenance of Riddle 49." Neophilologus: Volume 82:4, 1998 Oct. Pages 617-18.

Lasnik, Howard, "Some Reconstruction Riddles," University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 5:1 (1998) pp. 83-98.

Niles, John D., "Exeter Book Riddle 74 and the Play of the Text." Anglo-Saxon England, Volume 27, 1998. Pages 169-207.

Rodrigues, Louis J. (ed. and trans.) Sixty-Five Anglo-Saxon Riddles. Felinfach, 1998 (?? sic ASE for 1999)

Salvador Bello, Mercedes, "Direct and Indirect Clues: Exeter Riddle No. 74 Reconsidered." Neuphilologische Mitteilungen: Volume 99:1, 1998. Pages17-29.

Finley, Robert, "The Riddles Charm," Dalhousie Riview 77:3 (1997) pp. 313-22.

Gleason, Raymond Edward. "Per Speculum in Enigmate: Runes, Riddles, and Language in Anglo-Saxon Literature." Dissertations Abstracts International. Northwestern University: 1997.

Klein, Thomas P. "The Old English Translation of Aldhelm's Riddle Lorica." Review of English Studies 48, 1997. Pages 345-349.

Wehlau, Ruth, 'The Riddle of Creation,' Metaphor Structures in Old English Poetry. Peter Lang, 1997, pp. 160.
Meaney, Audrey L., "Exeter Book Riddle 57 (55) - A Double Solution?" Anglo-Saxon England, Volume 25 1996. Pages 187-200

Sayers, William, "Exeter Book Riddle No. 5: Whetstone?" Neuphilologische Mitteilungen: Volume 97:4. 1996. Pages 387-92.

Wilcox, Jonathan, "Mock-Riddles in Old English: Exeter Riddles 86 and 19." Studies in Philology, Volume 93:2 1996 Spring. Pages 180-87

Breeze, Andrew, "Old English gop 'Servant' in Riddle 49: Old Irish gop 'Snout'." Neophilologus 79:4 1995, pp.671-73

Dennis, Caroline, "Exeter Book Riddle 39: Creature Faith." Medieval Perspectives 10 1995, pp.77-85

Dewa, Roberta J., "The runic riddles of the Exeter Book: language games and Anglo-Saxon scholarship." Nottingham Medieval Studies (Univ. of Nottingham) (39) 1995. Pages 26-36.

Jember, Gregory K. "Old English Riddles 1-2-3 ? University of Saga Studies in English 23 (1995) pp. 1-18.

Stanley, Eric Gerald, "Heroic Aspects of the Exeter Book Riddles." Prosody and Poetics in the Early Middle Ages: 1995. Pages 197-218.

Stevanovitch, Colette, "Exeter Book Riddle 70A: Nose?" Notes and Queries: Volume 42 (240) 1995 Mar. Pages 8-10

Taylor, Keith P.,"Mazers, Mead, and the Wolf's-Head Tree: A Reconsideration of Old English Riddle 55." Journal of English and Germanic Philology, Volume 94:4, 1995 Oct. Pages 497-512.

Irving, Edward B., Jr., "Heroic Experience in the Old English Riddles." Old English Shorter Poems: Basic Readings, New York: Garland. 1994. Pages 199-212. O'Keeffe, Katherine O'Brien (ed.)

Harnett, Gerald (ed and introd), "Maxims and Riddles," Hellas 5:2 (1994).

Kitson, Peter. "Swans and Geese in Old English Riddles." Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archeology and History 7, 1994, pp 79-84.

Lapidge, Michael, "Stoic Cosmology and the Source of the First Old English Riddle." Anglia: Volume 112:1-2, 1994 pp. 1-25.

Smol, Anna. "Things Speaking and Speech ‘Thinking': Riddlic Voices and The Seafarer." English Studies in Canada 20, 1994 Sept , pp. 249-65.

Tanke, John W., "'Wonfeax wale': Ideology and Figuration in the Sexual Riddles of the Exeter Book." Class and Gender in Early English Literature: Intersections, Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1994. Pages 21-42. Harwood, Britton J. and Overing, Gillian R. (eds.)

Tigges, Wim, "Snakes and Ladders: Ambiguity and Coherence in the Exeter Book Riddles and Maxims." Companion to Old English Poetry, Amsterdam:Vrije UP. 1994. 95-118. Aertsen, Henk and, Bremmer, Rolf H., Jr. (eds.)

Wehlau, Ruth, "The Riddle of Creation: Some Metaphor Structures in Old English Poetry," Dissertation Abstracts International 55: 3, 1994 Sept., 561A

McCarthy, Marcella, "A Solution to Riddle 72 in the Exeter Book." Review of English Studies: Volume 44: 174. 1993 May. Pages 204-10

Morgan, Gwendolyn and Brian McAllister, " Reading Riddles 30A and 30B as Two Poems " Geardagum: 14, 1993, pp.67-77.
Anderson, James E., "Exeter Latin Riddle 90: A Liturgical Vision." Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Volume 23 1992. Pages 73-93.

Davis, Adam, "Agon and Gnomon: Forms and Functions of the Anglo-Saxon Riddles." De Gustibus: 1992. Pages 110-50

Fry, Donald K., "Exeter Riddle 31: Feather-Pen." De Gustibus: 1992. Pages 234-49

Griffith, Mark, "Riddle 19 of the Exeter Book: SNAC, an Old English Acronym." Notes and Queries, Volume 39 (237):1 1992 Mar. Pages 15-16

Jasnowski, Antoni Tadeusz, "A Rhetoric of Riddles: Riddle Solving as an Analogy for Rhetorical Invention." Dissertation Abstracts International 52:7 1992, p. 2443A.

Morgan, Gwendolyn A. "Dualism and Mirror Imagery in Anglo-Saxon Riddles." Journal of the Fantastic in the Art 5 1992, pp. 74-85.

Schaefer, Ursula, "From an Aesthetic Point of View: Receptional Aspects of Old English Poetry."De Gustibus: 1992. Pages 494-541.

Stanley, E. G., "Wolf, My Wolf!" Old English and New: 1992. Pages 46-62.

Walker-Pelkey, Faye. "‘Frige hwaet ic hatte': ‘The Wife's Lament' as Riddle." Papers on Language and Literature 28 1992 Summer, pp. 242-66.

Williams, Edith Whitehurst, "Sacred and Profane: A Metaphysical Conceit upon a Cup."In Geardagum: Volume 13. 1992 June. Pages 19-30

Brown, Ray, "The Exeter Book's Riddle 2: A Better Solution." English Language Notes, Volume 29:2 1991 Dec. Pages 1-4.

Lester, G. A. "Sindrum begrunden in Exeter Book Riddle No. 26." Notes and Queries, Volume 38:1 (236). 1991 Mar. Pages 13-15.

Morgan, Gwendolyn, "Duality in Piers Plowman and the Anglo-Saxon Riddles." Connotations: A Journal for Critical Debate, Volume 1:2 1991 July. Pages 168-72

Marchand, James W., "The Partridge? An Old English Multiquote." Neophilologus, Volume 75:4 1991 Oct. Pages 603-11.

Nelson, Marie, "Four Social Functions of the Exeter Book Riddles." Neophilologus, Volume 75:3 1991 July. Pages 445-50.

Pulsiano, Phillip (Alternate Author Wolf, Kirsten), "Exeter Book Riddle 57: Those Damned Souls, Again." Germanic Notes, Volume 22:1-2 1991. Pages 2-5.

Stanley, E. G."Stanley B. Greenfield's Solution of Riddle (ASPR) 39: 'Dream'." Notes and Queries, Volume 38:2 (236). 1991 June. Pages 148-49.

Tigges, Wim, "Signs and Solutions: A Semiotic Approach to the Exeter Book Riddles." This Noble Craft: Proceedings of the Xth Research Symposium of the Dutch and Belgian University Teachers of Old and Middle English and Historical Linguistics, Utrecht, 19-20 January, 1989. Amsterdam: Rodopi. 1991. Pages 59-82. Kooper, Erik (ed.)

Wilson, John, "Old English Riddle No. 39: 'Comet'." Notes and Queries, Volume 38:4 (236). 1991 Dec. Pages 442-43.
Robinson, Fred C., "The Question of Authorship." ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes and Reviews,
1990 Apri, 3:2. Pages 59-64.

Welsh, Andrew, "Swallows Name Themselves: Exeter Book Riddle 55." ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes, and Reviews, Volume 3:2 1990 Apr. Pages 90-93

Wilcox, Jonathan, "New Solutions to Old English Riddles: Riddles 17 and 53." Philological Quarterly, Volume 69:4 1990 Fall. Pages 393-408
Davis, Patricia (Alternate Author: Schlueter, Mary), "The Latin Riddle of the Exeter Book." Archiv fur das Studium der Neueren Sprachen und Literaturen, Volume 226:1, 1989. Pages 92-99.

Lerer, Seth, "The Riddle and the Book: Exeter Book Riddle 42 in Its Contexts." Papers on Language and Literature: Volume 25:1 1989 Winter, Pages 3-18.
Jacobs, Nicolas, "The Old English 'Book-Moth' Riddle Reconsidered." Notes and Queries, Volume 35 (233):3 1988 Sept. Pages 290-292.

Jember, Gregory K., "Literal and Metaphorical: Clues to Reading the Old English Riddles." Studies in English Literature, 1988 Sept. Pages 47-56.

Liuzza, Roy Michael, "The Texts of the Old English Riddle 30." Journal of English and Germanic Philology, Volume 87. 1988 Jan. Pages 1-15.

Williams, Edith Whitehurst, "Annals of the Poor: Folk Life in Old English Riddles." Medieval Perspectives, Volume 3:2 1988 Fall. Pages 67-82.
Bodden, Mary Catherine, "Anglo-Saxon Self Consciousness in Language," English Studies, 68, 1987. Pages 24-39.

Bolton, W. F. "The Conditions of Literary Composition in Medieval England." The Middle Ages, 1986. Pages 1-27.

Couch, Christopher L., "From Under Mountains to Beyond Stars: The Process of Riddling in Leofric's The Exeter Book and The Hobbit."Mythlore: A Journal of J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, Charles Williams, and the Genres of Myth and Fantasy, Volume 14:1 (51). 1987 Autumn. Pages 9-13, 55.

Doane, A. N., "Three Old English Implement Riddles: Reconsiderations of Numbers 4, 49, and 73." Modern Philology: Volume 84:3, 1987 Feb. Pages 243-257.

Jember, Gregory K.,"Prolegomena to a Study of the Old English Riddles." Jour. of Faculty of Liberal Arts (Saga Univ.) Volume 19, 1987. Pages 155-178

Machan, Tim William (Co-author: Peterson, Robyn G.), "The Crux of Riddle 53." English Language Notes, Volume 24:3, 1987 Mar. Pages 7-14.

Nelson, Marie, "Plus Animate: Two Possible Transformations of Riddles by Symphosius." Germanic Notes, Volume 18:3-4, 1987. Pages 46-48.
Anderson, James E., Two Literary Riddles in the Exeter Book: Riddle 1 and the Easter Riddle. Critical edition and translation, .Norman:U of Oklahoma P. 1986. Pp. xii, 282.

Conner, Patrick, "The Structure of the Exeter Book Codex ( Exeter, Cathedral Library, MS. 3501)," Scriptorium: 40:2, 1986, pp. 233-42.

Jember, Gregory K., "Some Hints on Ambiguity and Meaning in Riddle 39." Hiroshima Studies in English Language and Literature, Volume 31. 1986. Pages 26-38.

Rissanen, Matti, "Nathwaet in the Exeter Book Riddles." Amer. Notes & Queries, Volume 24:7-8, 1986 Mar.-Apr. Pages 116-119.

Bately, Janet, "Linguistic Evidence as a Guide to the Authorship of Old English Verse: Language and Learning in Anglo-Saxon England, 1985. Pages 409-31. Lapidge and Gneuss, eds.

O'Keeffe, Katherine O'Brien, "The Text of Aldhelm's Enigma No. C. in Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson C.697 and Exeter Riddle 40." Anglo-Saxon England, Volume 14, 1985. Pages 61-73
Nothing this year.
Anderson, James E., "Two Spliced Riddles of the Exeter Book." In Geardagum: Volume 5 1983. Pages 57-76.

Anderson, James E., "Deor, Wulf and Eadwacer, and The Souls Address :How and Where the Exeter Book Riddles Begin," in Martin Green ed., The Old English Elegies: New Essays in Criticism and Research. Associated University Presses, 1983, pp. 204-31

Stewart, Ann Harleman, "Double Entendre in the Old English Riddles." Lore and Language. Volume 3:8, 1983 Jan. Pages 39-52
Mitchell, Stephen A., "Ambiguity and Germanic Imagery of OE Riddle 1: 'Army'." Studia Neophilologica: Volume 54:1, 1982. Pages 39-52.

Nelson, Marie, "Old English Riddle 18 (20): A Description of Ambivalence." Neophilologus, Volume 66:2, 1982 Apr. Pages 291-300.

Oda, Takuji, A Concordance to the Riddles of the Exeter Book, Tokyo, 1982.

Shippey, T. A., "Approaches to Truth in Old English Poetry." University of Leeds Review, Volume 25, 1982. Pages 171-189.

Strite, Victor L., "Semantic Field Analysis for Old English Poetry: Using Computer and Semantic Features to Find Meaning."
In Geardagum, 5, 1982. Pages 29-38.

Williamson, Craig, A Feast of Creatures: Anglo-Saxon Riddle Songs. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982. Abstract: Translated, with Introduction, Notes and Commentary. (Noted in ASE)

Ziegler, Waltraud, "Ein neuer Losungsversuch fur das altenglische Ratsel Nr. 28." Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik, Volume 7:2, 1982. Pages 185-190.
Bierbaumer, Peter (Alternate Author: Wannagat, Elke), "Ein Neuer Losungsvorschlag fur ein Altenglisches Ratsel: Krapp-Dobbie 17."Anglia: Volume 99:3-4, 1981. Pages 379-382.

Fry, Donald K., "Exeter Book Riddle Solutions." Old English Newsletter, Volume 15:1, 1981 Fall. Pages 22-33

Pinsker, Hans, "Ein Verschollenes Altenglisches Rätsel." A Yearbook of Studies in English Language and Letters, Vienna, 1981. Siefried Korringer, ed.

Stewart, Ann Harleman, "The Solution to Old English Riddle 4." Studies in Philology, Volume 78:5, 1981 Early Winter. Pages 52-61.
Alexander, Michael (trans.) Old English Riddles from the Exeter Book. Dublin, 1980.

Fukucchi, Michael Seiji, "A Study of Old English Riddles." Dissertation Abstracts International, 1980, 41:1609A.

Greenfield, Stanley B., "Old English Riddle 39: Clear and Visible." Anglia, 98, l980. Pages 95-100.

Johnson, William C., Jr., "The Ruin as Body-City Riddle." Philological Quarterly, Volume 59:4, 1980 Fall. Pages 397-411.

O'Keefe, Katherine O'B., "Exeter Riddle 40: The Art of an Old English Translator."Proceedings of the PMR Conference: Annual Publication of the International Patristic, Mediaeval and Renaissance Conference, Volume 5, 1980. Pages 107-117.
Alexander, Michael (trans.), "Seven Old English Riddles." Agenda, 17.2, 1979. Pages 6-9.

Anderson, James Edward, "Strange, Sad Voices: The Portraits of Germanic Women in the Old English Exeter Book."
Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume 39: 1979. Pages 6752A

Calder, Daniel G., Old English Poetry: Essays on Style. Berkeley: University of California Press, l979.

Stewart, Ann Harleman, "Kenning and Riddle in Old English." Papers on Language and Literature, Volume 15, 1979. Pages 115-136.
Crossly-Holland, Kevin, The Exeter Riddle Book, London, 1978. (Reviewer: Mole, John, Times Literary Supplement 1980, 19 Dec. Page 1428.)

Gobel, Heidi (Alternate Author: Gobel, Rudiger), "The Solution of an Old English Riddle." [28], Studia Neophilologica: Volume 50, 1978. Pages 185-91.

Jember, Gregory K. "Proposed Restoration in Riddle 48." In Geardagum: Volume 3, 1978. Pages 91-3.

Marino, Matthew. ‘The Literariness of the Exeter Book Riddles." Neuphilologische Mitteilungen:, 79, 1978. Pages 258-65.

Nelson, Marie, "The Paradox of Silent Speech in The Exeter Book Riddles." Neophilologus, Volume 62, 1978. Pages 609-15.

Ryan, William M., "Let Riddles Be Your Key." New Letters, 45:1, 1978. Pages 107-12

Walters, Frank, "Language Structure and the Meanings of the Exeter Book Riddles." Ball State University Forum, Volume 19:3, 1978. Pages 42-55.

Wells, Richard, "The Old English Riddles and Their Ornithological Content." Lore and Language, 2.9, 1978. Pages 57-67.
Crossly-Holland, Kevin, "Seven Questionable Riddles." Ambit , 71, 1977. Pages 26-34.

Jember, Gregory K., "Riddle 57: A New Proposal." In Geardagum: 2. 1977. Pages 68-73.

Jember, Gregory K., "A Generational Method for the Study of Anglo-Saxon Riddles." Studies in Medieval Culture, 11, 1977. Pages 33-39.

Russom, Geoffrey, "Exeter Riddle 47: A Moth Laid Waste to Fame." Philological Quarterly, Volume 56, 1977. Pages 129-36.

Schneider, Karl, "Zu vier ae. Rätseln." Gedenkschrift für Jost Trier, 1977. Harmut Bekess, ed.

Whitman, Frank Herbert, "Significant Motifs in Riddle 53." Medium Aevum, Volume 46, 1977. Pages 1-11

Williamson, Craig, The Old English Riddles of the Exeter Book, Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 1977. Abstract: With Introduction, Appendixes to the Introduction, Notes and Commentary, Glossary, Bibliography, and Index of Solutions.(Reviews: Campbell, Jackson J. Modern Philology: 77, 1980, pages 315-17. Nelson, Marie. Speculum: 54, 1979. Pages 199-201.
Borges, J. L., "The Kenning." The New Yorker, 1976, 26 January. Pages 35-6.

Foley, John Miles, "Riddles 53, 54, and 55: An Archetypal Symphony in Three Movements." Studies in Medieval Culture, 10, 1976. Pages 25-31.

Foley, John Miles, "'Riddle I' of the Exeter Book: The Apocalyptical Storm." Neuphilologische Mitteilungen: Volume 77, 1976. Pages 347-57.

Meyvaert, Paul, "The Solution to Old English Riddle 39." Speculum: Volume 51, 1976. Pages 195-201
Jember, Gregory K., "An Interpretive Translation of the Exeter Riddles." Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume 36, 1975. Pages 2182A-83A.

Kennedy, Christopher B., "Old English Riddle No. 39." English Language Notes, Volume 13, 1975. Pages 81-85.

Kiernan, Kevin S., "Cwene: The Old Profession of Exeter Riddle 95." Modern Philology, Volume 72, 1975. Pages 384-89.

Kiernan, Kevin S., "The Mysteries of the Sea-Eagle in Exeter Riddle 74." Philological Quarterly, Volume 54, 1975. Pages 518-22.

Nelson, Marie, "Old English Riddle No. 15: The 'Badger':An Early Example of Mock Heroic." Neophilologus, Volume 59, 1975. Pages 447-50.

Nelson, Marie, "Time in the Exeter Book Riddles." Philological Quarterly, Volume 54, 1975. Pages 511-18.

Robinson, Fred C., "Artful Ambiguities in the Old English 'Book-Moth' Riddle." Anglo-Saxon Poetry: 1975. Pages 355-62.

Stewart, Ann Harleman, "Old English Riddle 47 as Stylistic Parody." Papers on Language and Literature: Volume 11, 1975. Pages 227-41.

William, Edith Whitehurst, "The Relation between Pagan Survivals and Diction in Two Old English Riddles." Philological Quarterly, Volume 54, 1975. Pages 664-69.

Williams, Edith Whitehurst, "What's So New about the Sexual Revolution?: Some Comments on Anglo-Saxon Attitudes toward Sexuality in Women Based on Four Exeter Book Riddles." The Texas Quarterly, Volume 18:2, 1975. Pages 46-55.
Barley, Nigel F., "Structural Aspects of the Anglo-Saxon Riddles." Semiotica, 10, 1974. Pages 143-75.

Nelson, Marie, "The Rhetoric of the Exeter Book Riddles." Speculum: Volume 49, 1974. Pages 421-40.

Shook, Laurence K., "Riddles Relating to the Anglo-Saxon Scriptorium." Essays in Honour of Anton Charles Pegis. Toronto: Pont. Inst. of Mediaeval Studies, 1974. Pages 215-36. O'Donnell, J. Reginald (ed.).

Swanton, Michael J., Pages from the Exeter Book. Exeter: Univ of Exeter, 1974, 35 pp.
Abstract: OE text in facsim. & transcript, with introd. note.

Williamson, Craig B., "The Old English Riddles of the Exeter Book." Dissertation Abstracts International: Volume 34, 1974. Pages 7725A(Pa.).
Joyce, John J., "Natural Process in Exeter Book Riddle #29: 'Sun and Moon'." Annuale Mediaevale. Volume 14, 1973. Pages 5-8.

Nelson, Daphne Marie, "The Exeter Book Riddles: Variations of an Enigma." Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume 34, 1973. Pages 3352A(Ore.).

Pope, John C., "An Unsuspected Lacuna in the Exeter Book: Divorce Proceedings for an Ill-Matched Couple in the Old English Riddles." Speculum: A Journal of Medieval Studies, Volume 49, 1974. Pages 615-22.

Pinsker, Hans, "Neue Deutungen fur zwei altenglische Ratsel (Krapp-Dobbie 17 und 30)." Anglia: , Volume 91, 1973. Pages 11-17.

Barlow, Frank, Leofric of Exeter. Exeter: University of Exeter Press. 1972.

Greenfield, Stanley B. The Interpretation of Old English Poems. London: Routledge and Keegan Paul, 1972. Passim.

Swann, Brian, "Anglo-Saxon Riddles." Antaeus 7, 1972. Pages 12-17.

Williams, Edith Whitehurst, "The Anglo-Saxon Poetic Imagination: A Study of the Exeter Book Riddles." Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume 33, 1972. Pages 2908A(Cincinnati).
Crossley-Holland, Kevin, Storm, and Other Old English Riddles. London: Macmillan, 1970. Abstract:36 riddles tr. from the Exeter Book by C-H.

Reisner, Thomas A., Riddle 75 (Exeter Book)." Explicator, Volume 28, 1970. Item 78.
A gathering from before 1970

Conlee, John W., "Artistry in the Riddles of The Exeter Book." Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume 30, 1969. Pages 274A-75A(Ill.).

Kaske, R. E., "A Poem of the Cross in the Exeter Book: 'Riddle 60' and 'The Husband's Message'." Traditio: Studies in Ancient and Medieval History, Thought, and Religion, Volume 23, 1967. Pages 41-71.

Garvin, Katharine, "Nemnad hy sylfe: A Note on Riddle 57, Exeter Book." Classica et Mediaevalia, Volume 27, 1966. Pages 294-95. Abstract: Corr. of Bibliog. for 1969, Vol. I, Item 1863.

Hacikyan, Agop, A Linguistic and Literary Analysis of the Old English Riddles, Montreal: Cassalini, 1966. (94 pages)

Adams, John F. "The Anglo-Saxon Riddle as Lyric Mode." Criticism, Volume 7, 1965. Pages 335-48.

Baum, Paull F., tr., Anglo-Saxon Riddles of the Exeter Book. Durham: Duke UP, 1964. See Reviews.

Kennedy, Charles W., "The Riddles and Gnomic Verse." The Earliest English Poetry, New York: Oxford University Press, 1943.